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SOMALIA, Landmine Monitor Report 2005


Key developments since May 2004: The Prime Minister of Somalia’s Transitional Federal Government attended the Mine Ban Treaty’s First Review Conference, where he confirmed the government’s intention to join the treaty. The Deputy Prime Minister participated in the intersessional Standing Committee meetings held in Geneva in June 2005, where he announced his decision to destroy the antipersonnel mine stockpile held by his militia. There has been ongoing use of antipersonnel landmines in various parts of Somalia by a number of factions. The Somalia Coalition to Ban Landmines was launched in November 2004. A Landmine Impact Survey identified 35 mine-affected communities in Puntland, nine of which were highly impacted and nine others medium impacted. Police explosive ordnance disposal teams were trained and deployed in Puntland. In 2004, a significant increase in mine casualties was reported.

Mine Ban Policy

Somalia cannot accede to the Mine Ban Treaty because it has been without a central government since the 1991 fall of the government of Siyad Barre. In August 2004, after more than two years of negotiations in neighboring Kenya, a Transitional Federal Government (TFG) was formed for Somalia and, on 10 October 2004, Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed was elected President.[1 ] The TFG replaces the Transitional National Government (TNG) formed at a peace conference in Djibouti in August 2000.

In his first official international meeting as Prime Minister of the TFG, Ali Mohammed Gedi attended as an observer the First Review Conference of the Mine Ban Treaty in Nairobi in November-December 2004. He told the delegates, “It is the intention of the [TFG] to...outlaw anti-personnel mines...My government will pursue the ratification of the treaty, but please bear in mind we have a country to re-establish, so it may not be immediate.” He said the TFP aims to accede to the Mine Ban Treaty by the time of the Sixth Meeting of State Parties in November 2005. He implored States Parties, “We are a poor country with a proud heritage and a bright future, help us rebuild and achieve full nationhood by ridding Somalia of landmines and UXO [unexploded ordnance] so we can fully participate in the Convention to Ban Anti-Personnel Landmines.”[2 ]

In June 2005, the TFG’s Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Interior, Hussein Mohamed Aideed, represented the government at the intersessional Standing Committee meetings held in Geneva. He made a statement reaffirming the government’s resolve to accede to the treaty “as soon as practically possible” and called for assistance, including for stockpile destruction: “Somalia is a nation literally rising from the ashes...Please help us persuade those who have mines to give them up, discourage those who may wish to lay or supply mines and help us destroy those that are willingly given up...”[3]

As of mid-2005, the TFG had split into two groups. The group led by the Speaker of Parliament Sharif Hassan, which includes most of the warlords and more than 100 parliamentarians, moved to Mogadishu.[4 ] A group led by the President and his Prime Minister moved to Jowhar, a town 90 kilometers north of Mogadishu.[5]

The disarmament and demobilization of combatants is a critical component of the TFG’s strategy to enhance security across the country. In addition to the establishment of a Ministry on Militia Rehabilitation and Training, the Somali Transitional Federal Charter stipulates in Article 68 (Paragraph 3/i) the formation of a Special Commission on Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration (DDR) to develop policy, coordinate and manage strategies on DDR.

Sixteen Somali factions (including representatives of the TNG, Puntland, Jowhar Administration and Rahanweyn Resistance Army) signed the Swiss-based NGO Geneva Call’s Deed of Commitment to ban landmines on 11 November 2002. Another group, the Jubba Valley Alliance of Barre Hiraale, signed the Deed in January 2005.[6 ] Some major factions—including those headed by Qanyare Afrax, Muse Suudi Yalaxow and Said Morgan¾did not sign, while some of the leaders that did sign do not control any territory or armed militia.[7 ] Geneva Call conducted a field assessment mission to Somalia in September 2004 to follow up on the commitments made.[8]

The northeastern Somali state of Puntland established itself as an autonomous region on 1 August 1998, and in 2000 its president issued a decree banning the use of antipersonnel landmines. Northwestern Somalia proclaimed an independent Somaliland in 1991, and in March 1999 its House of Representatives passed a resolution in favor of a total ban of landmines. (See the separate Landmine Monitor report on Somaliland for further information). In 1998, the Somali Patriotic Movement (SPM), which operates in the lower Juba River region, released a statement to the ICBL affirming that it would unilaterally observe the Mine Ban Treaty.

On 20 November 2004, a Somalia Coalition to Ban Landmines (SOCBAL) made up of nine NGOs was formed to work toward a mine-free Somalia.[9 ] SOCBAL, which joined the ICBL in April 2005, plans to hold advocacy programs throughout Somalia.

Production, Transfer and Stockpiling

In December 2004, the TFG Prime Minister stated, “Although Somalia is not a manufacturer or exporter of landmines, there are mines in private hands and regional authority’s possession.”[10 ] Somalia is not known to have produced or exported antipersonnel landmines in the past. Both antipersonnel and antivehicle mines are plentiful in Somalia, and can be openly bought from weapons markets, particularly at Barkat in Mogadishu, the country’s largest such market.[11 ] A May 2005 media article states that “the bottom has fallen out of the market” for landmines. Local arms dealers believe the price decreases may be due to a glut of weapons on the market and a decline in demand due to the onset of peace and the anticipated arrival of African Union peacekeepers. One merchant said, “There’s been little demand for landmines in the past year.”[12]

In November 2003, the United Nations released an expert panel report on violations of the UN arms embargo in Somalia under Resolution 1474. The report stated, “The availability of explosives in Somalia is the direct result of large-scale violations of the arms embargo in recent years with respect to landmines.”[13 ] It noted that explosives “are obtained by dismantling land mines, large quantities of which have been delivered to Somalia in recent years—principally from Ethiopia and Yemen.”[14 ] In September 2004, various faction leaders interviewed during the Geneva Call assessment mission also accused Ethiopia and Yemen of providing landmines to militia in Somalia.[15 ]

Throughout Somalia, competing factions and private individuals are believed to hold and use large stocks of antipersonnel mines. In June 2005, Deputy Prime Minister Aideed announced his decision to destroy antipersonnel mine stockpiles held by his militia in Mogadishu and called on his fellow ministers and the President to do the same.[16 ] He told Landmine Monitor that his militia had 3,500 antipersonnel mines and that he believed various warlords held at least 10,000 antipersonnel mines in Mogadishu alone.[17 ] Geneva Call has reported that authorities in Puntland hold mine stockpiles in three military camps, including one near Garowe, that the Somali National Front in Gedo region has about 200 mines in different caches, and that local militia in Bay and Juba possess several hundred mines.[18 ]


Landmines have been used extensively in Somalia for decades in a variety of conflicts. Since the fall of Siyad Barre in 1991, many of the factions vying for power in Somalia have used antipersonnel and antivehicle mines, although many of the charges of ongoing use have been unclear and lack detail.

In 2004, the use of landmines was reported in several regional conflicts. In Jilib and Barawe, militias from the Shiikhaal clan were reported to have planted mines after clashing with the rival Ayr group.[19 ] In September 2004, landmines were reportedly used in clashes between the Somali Patriotic Movement (SPM) and the Jubba Valley Alliance (JVA) in the Lower Jubba region near the town of Kismayo. Geneva Call was told in September 2004 that militia in the Bay and Bekol regions have used mines in road blocks set up to tax travelers.[20 ]

Clashes with reported use of mines continued in various areas of Somalia in 2005. The Somaliland Mine Action Center told Landmine Monitor in June 2005 that landmines were still being used widely in south and central Somalia; it noted that whenever two clans fight, the first thing each side automatically decides is to use landmines to defend themselves.[21 ] In April 2005, media reported the arrests of 20 foreigners by Kenyan police following fighting that included the use of antipersonnel mines between the Gare and Marehan clans in the Somali town of Burhache, approximately 10 kilometers from the Kenyan border.[22]

There have been reports of mine casualties in 2005, apparently due to new use of mines, particularly in the Galguduud region, where the Saad and Suleyman sub-clans have been fighting in the Adado and Hobyo areas. On 10 March 2005, a young boy reportedly stepped on the tripwire of a POMZ mine and was killed in Sanaag Ceerigaabo.[23]

Landmine Monitor Report 2004 noted that there were concerns about possible use of landmines by both sides after Puntland forces in December 2003 seized the town of Las Anod in the Sool region, which is claimed by both Somaliland and Puntland, and skirmishes continued well into 2004.[24 ] Both Somaliland and Puntland authorities denied that their forces deployed any antipersonnel mines.[25 ] There were no reports of mine casualties in the area in 2004 or 2005.

Landmine and UXO Problem

The mine problem in Somalia is a result of various internal and regional conflicts over an almost 40-year period, with the first reported occurrence of mine-laying in 1964. Central and southern Somalia are heavily contaminated with mines and unexploded ordnance (UXO); Galguduud, Bakool, Bay, Hiran and Lower Jubba are the most affected regions. In addition, a large amount of explosive ordnance exists countrywide.[26 ]

The UN claims that the socioeconomic impact of landmines and UXO can be seen in almost every aspect of Somali society: reduced land available for livestock and agricultural production, increased transportation costs, poor performance of rehabilitation and development efforts, loss of life, disabilities, a general lack of security of communities, and obstacles to repatriation and reintegration.[27 ] Casualties continued to be reported in 2005 from mines and UXO.[28 ] The UN also believes, however, that the mine and UXO threat in Somalia is “a finite problem” and one that “given sustained attention,” can be solved in a seven- to ten-year period with adequate resources.[29]

Mine Action

Conflict in much of Somalia has largely prevented mine action efforts, including planned survey, clearance and mine risk education activities. There is no functioning mine action center for the whole of Somalia and no mine action strategy.[30 ] The UN Development Programme (UNDP) has maintained a presence in Somalia focused on mine action capacity-building and technical assistance since 2003. A local mine action NGO, the Somali Demining & UXO Action Group Centre (SOMMAC), was formed in 1992 by engineers and technicians from former Somali military units. SOMMAC became part of SOCBAL, the Somalia Coalition to Ban Landmines, working in collaboration with the Institute for Practical Research & Training, Geneva Call and the ICBL. SOMMAC claims to carry out both operational demining activities such as survey, reconnaissance, clearance and mine risk education as well as advocacy.[31 ]

In southern Somalia, the unpredictable security situation continued to prevent coordinated mine action planning throughout 2004.[32 ] In Puntland, in the northeast of the country, UNDP capacity-building of the Puntland Mine Action Centre (PMAC) was completed in 2004.[33 ] In March 2004, UNDP started training police explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) teams in Garowe and Jowhar.[34 ] Training was completed for one team (of four police) in Johwar, and for one of three teams in Garowe.[35 ] After deployment of the Jowhar team in 2004, and establishment of the Transitional Federal Government, higher donor interest was expected by UNDP. But, “... without any kind of reliable information on the contamination level of the regions no serious intervention can be successful. Therefore, we would like to establish regional MACs as well-similar to the Puntland program...” that are able to conduct surveys and data collection, and coordinate efficient tasking of the EOD teams.[36]

UNDP’s mine action workplan for Somalia includes supporting activities to establish sustainable EOD and mine clearance teams based on existing local police and army capacity, and the creation of mine action centers in affected regions to coordinate activities.[37 ] Although the strategy remains broad in view of the uncertain political and security situation, UNDP’s main aim is to focus on national institution-building and local capacity-building to complement other, more operational, international initiatives. UNDP maintains that international NGOs are expected to gradually shift their activities further to the east and south.[38]

Projects in the UN Mine Action Portfolio for Puntland and southern Somalia include: further institutional support and capacity-building to PMAC for 2005-2007, provided by UNDP and the Somalia Rule of Law and Security Program, which is deemed vital for the coordination of mine action and treaty-implementation in the region; clearance activities by the Danish Demining Group in April 2005-March 2006 (budgeted at US$858,956); continued development, with UNDP and Somalia Rule of Law and Security Program support, of police EOD teams in 2005-2007 (budgeted at $60,000).[39 ] In Puntland, UNDP envisaged the creation of a mine clearance capacity within the armed forces in 2006-2007.[40]

Surveys and Mine/UXO Clearance

SOMMAC claims to have conducted some surveys and assessments of mine/ERW contamination.[41 ] No general survey or impact survey has yet been conducted throughout Somalia.

A Landmine Impact Survey (LIS) planned for Puntland in 2003 was delayed for security reasons; it was started on 9 August 2004 and completed in three areas of Puntland (Bari, Nugaal and Mudug) on 10 May 2005.[42 ] The UN certified the survey in August 2005 and Cranfield University Resilience Centre conducted a strategic planning workshop in September. The final LIS report was due to be distributed in October.[43 ] According to the final report received from the Survey Action Center, there are 35 affected communities in Puntland, nine of which were classified as high impact and a further nine as medium impact.[44 ] Seventy-seven percent of the mine-affected areas in Puntland are in the Galkayo and Galgodob districts, in Mudug region.[45]

Implementation of the Somali LIS projects has been coordinated by the Survey Action Center. UNDP plans for Phase III of the LIS in the south of Somalia in 2005-2006, depending upon security conditions. The UN Mine Action Portfolio budgeted $2 million for survey of the southern and central parts of Somalia if and when the security situation allows.[46 ]

In September 2005, UNDP reported that, “During the two LIS projects so far (Phase I in Somaliland and Phase II in Puntland) we have established an IMSMA section within the two regional MACs [in Puntland and Somaliland].... The IMSMA databases of the MACs contain the individual regions data collected during the particular LIS.”[47 ] Parallel to that, the UNDP mine action program maintains a countrywide IMSMA database in which the entire region's data is stored.[48 ] When possible, the database will be handed over to a central mine action authority in Mogadishu.[49 ] The regional MACs of Somaliland and Puntland have their own IMSMA systems containing results of the two regional LIS.[50 ] UNDP also plans for Phase III of the LIS in the south of Somalia in the Sool and Sanaag areas in 2005-2006, depending upon security conditions.[51]

By the middle of 2005, the Police EOD Teams in Puntland had started to address spot clearance tasks identified in the LIS. In Jowhar, Police EOD Team carried out clearance of both UXO and some mines.[52 ] Further details have not been provided.

Mine Risk Education

According to the Coordinator of SOMMAC, there is very little mine risk education (MRE) in Somalia because of a lack of capacity. SOMMAC organized a mine risk education seminar in April 2005 with the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) and Radio Shabele in Mogadishu. Seminar participants included journalists from various local radio stations, local newspaper editors and website writers. The main issue on the agenda was how journalists could avoid the danger of mines and UXO.[53]

Funding and Assistance

Donor funding in 2004, which was identified as specifically for Somalia, included Canada, C$110,000 ($84,505) to UNDP in support of PMAC, and the European Commission.[54 ] EC funding is reported to have been allocated to the Puntland LIS; the LIS was budgeted at $430,000.[55 ] The total amount of EC funding spent in Somalia in 2004 is not known.

Landmine Casualties

In 2004, the Somali Center for Research and Documentation (SOCRED) recorded at least 91 new casualties, including 38 people killed and 53 injured, in 20 landmine incidents. The majority of incidents appear to be caused by antivehicle mines.[56 ] This represents a significant increase from at least 75 new mine casualties (40 people killed and 35 injured) reported in 2003.[57 ] However, landmine casualties are not systematically recorded in Somalia and the number of casualties is likely understated. SOCRED in Mogadishu collects casualty data in their field research.

Casualties continued in 2005, with eight people killed and three injured in one landmine incident reported by SOCRED in February.[58 ] In one incident in Mudug region on 23 March, one person was killed and 69 injured when a landmine exploded near three vehicles during fighting between two clans.[59 ] PMAC reported two mine/UXO incidents in Puntland in 2005, with four people killed and three injured.[60 ] No information was available from SOMMAC or PMAC for 2004.

SOCRED also recorded 11 casualties (five killed and six injured) in three UXO incidents in 2004, and 11 people killed and 14 injured in four UXO incidents to April 2005, including 11 children; 16 UXO casualties were recorded in 2003.[61]

Preliminary results of the Landmine Impact Survey Phase II, conducted between August 2004 and May 2005 in Bari, Nugaal and North Mudug, reports 64 “recent” mine casualties, including 21 people killed and 43 injured; eight were female. The majority of casualties (90 percent) were recorded in the districts of Galguduud (40 casualties) and Gaalkacyo (17 casualties), in the Mudug region. Other casualties were recorded in Bosaso (five) and Burtinle (two). Of the total casualties, 39 percent were aged between 15 and 29 years, and 25 percent were children under 15 years old. Most casualties were traveling or herding at the time of the incident; however, 10 of the 16 child casualties were playing or tampering with the mine.[62 ] The Phase II LIS also recorded 618 less recent casualties, including 247 people killed and 371 injured.[63 ]

The total number of mine casualties in Somalia is not known. Between 1995 and 2000, 4,357 landmine casualties were recorded in Bay and Bakool regions, including 2,626 people killed and 1,731 injured, and between 2001 and 2003, more than 533 mine/UXO casualties were reported.[64 ]

Survivor Assistance

The health infrastructure in Somalia is very poor with hospitals lacking equipment, medicines and adequately trained health personnel.[65 ] Preliminary results from the LIS Phase II found that in mine-affected communities in Bari, Nugaal and North Mudug, healthcare structures are largely non-existent. The survey reports that 69 percent of mine-affected communities do not have any healthcare facilities. There is no regular ambulance service and roads are in poor condition. Of 43 recent survivors, 27 (63 percent) did not receive any form of medical assistance, and only two survivors reported receiving a device such as a prosthesis or crutches; 20 suffered an amputation, and seven lost their eyesight.[66]

The Somali Red Crescent Society (SRCS), in partnership with UNICEF, supports 42 health clinics.[67 ] ICRC also supports SRCS to improve access to medical services in conflict areas, by providing funding, medicines, technical advice and training, and improving facilities. Two referral hospitals in Mogadishu, the Keysaney Hospital run by SRCS and Medina Hospital, received support in 2004; 2,043 war-wounded were treated, including three landmine casualties. ICRC also supported four “pre-hospital care centers” and 16 health posts covering most of central and southern Somalia to improve first aid and emergency care, including Baidoa Hospital in Bay region, Brawa Hospital in Lower Shabele, Mudug Regional Hospital in Gaalkacyo and SRCS health posts in Dusamareb in Galguduud, and Jilib in Lower Shabele. The centers supported more than 5,343 patients, including 386 war-wounded; 23 landmine/UXO casualties were treated. Other hospitals and clinics also received ad hoc medical and surgical material for treating war wounded. ICRC organized a conference on surgery for 26 medical staff from hospitals in Mogadishu, Baidoa and Marka.[68 ]

Intersos supports the reconstruction of health and education services in central and southern Somalia. In 2004, Intersos supported the activities of the Jowhar hospital, in the Middle Shabele region, to improve the quality of services through capacity-building of local health and administrative staff. Funding is provided by the European Union.[69]

Médecins Sans Frontières also supports a number of hospitals in Somalia.[70 ]

The Norwegian Red Cross continues to support rehabilitation centers run by SRCS in Mogadishu and Gaalkacyo. The centers provide physiotherapy, prostheses, orthoses, crutches, a repair service and also training for physiotherapists. In order to reduce the total dependency on external funding and to create local ownership, a cost sharing model has been introduced in the centers. The Mogadishu center produced 197 prostheses and 109 orthoses, repaired 187 devices, and produced 433 walking aids and crutches; 16 mine survivors were assisted. The Gaalkacyo center produced 73 prostheses, 79 orthoses, 245 crutches and walkers, and repaired 49 devices; 22 mine survivors were assisted.[71 ] The program is supported by the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and NORAD.

Although not directly involved in survivor assistance, UNICEF and its partners are supporting a psychosocial care and support strategy in Somalia, and the training of local stakeholders (government officials, NGOs, community mobilizers) in the field of psychosocial support for vulnerable children, in particular child victims of the conflict and children with disabilities.[72]

The LIS data indicates that there are few opportunities for the socioeconomic reintegration of mine survivors. Of 43 recent survivors, 12 were unemployed before the incident, increasing to 21 unemployed after the incident.[73 ] Landmine Monitor has not identified any socioeconomic reintegration programs assisting mine survivors.

The UNDP proposal to support the Somalia Mine Action Program included a survivor assistance component; however, security concerns have limited any progress.[74]

In December 2004, a new transitional government was created, which includes the Ministry for Disabled and Orphans. Once the transitional government is operational, this ministry will be responsible for issues relating to mine survivors.[75 ] The Ministry of Health in Puntland reportedly has legislation to protect the rights of all persons with disabilities.[76]

[1 ]“Warlord Elected Somali President,” Reuters (Nairobi), 10 October 2004; “Radical Warlord, With Ties To Islamist Terrorist Groups, Elected Somalia President,” Defense and Foreign Affairs Daily (Washington DC), 13 October 2004.

[2 ]Statement by Ali M. Gedi, Prime Minister, Transitional Federal Government of Somalia, Nairobi Summit on a Mine-Free World (First Review Conference), Nairobi, 2 December 2004. See also, “Somalia plans to ban landmines, asks for patience,” Reuters (Nairobi), 3 December 2004.

[3] Statement by Hussein Mohamed Aideed, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Interior, Geneva, 15 June 2005.

[4 ]“Somali Speaker Leads Controversial Delegation to Mogadishu,” PANA (Nairobi), 16 May 2005.

[5] “Somali Premier Moves Government to Jowhar,” PANA (Nairobi), 18 June 2005.

[6 ]Confirmed in email from Pascal Bongard, Geneva Call, 26 September 2005.

[7 ]These three faction leaders control substantial militias and are major players in Somalia’s current civil war. Signatories who do not control any land or militia include Abdulaziz Sheikh Yusuf (Southern Somali National Movement/Somali National Alliance), Abdullahi Sheikh Ismail (Southern Somali National Movement/BIREM), Mowlid Ma'ane Mohamud (Somali African National Movement/Somali Reconstruction and Restoration Council) and Hilowle Imam Omar (Somali Reconstruction and Restoration Council Co-Chairman).

[8] Geneva Call, “Landmines in Somalia, Report of the Geneva Call Follow-up Mission to Puntland, Hiran and Bakol Regions, 15-27 September 2004.”

[9 ]SOCBAL was founded and launched in Hargeisa, Somaliland. Landmine Monitor, ICBL, the Institute for Practical Research and Training and Geneva Call attended the launch ceremony.

[10 ]Statement by Prime Minister Ali M. Gedi, First Review Conference, Nairobi, 2 December 2004.

[11 ]Landmine Monitor has photographs of antivehicle mines in Barkat market, and researchers in Mogadishu have regularly observed landmines in this market.

[12] “Mogadishu arms dealers feel the pinch of potential peace,” Agence France-Presse (Mogadishu), 5 May 2005.

[13 ]“Report of the Panel of Experts on Somalia Pursuant to Security Council Resolution 1474 (2003),” delivered to the President of the Security Council on 4 November 2003 (Ref. S/2003/1035), paras. 136-137, pp. 31-32.

[14 ]Landmine Monitor asked the governments of Ethiopia (then a Mine Ban Treaty signatory, now a State Party) and Yemen (a State Party) for a response to the UN report. Ethiopia did not reply. Yemen strongly denied any governmental involvement in mine shipments and said it was “inclined to guess that it was acquired by illegitimate, unofficial methods, and by means outside of the law.” Reply from the Government of Yemen by Mansour Al-Azi, 21 September 2004.

[15 ]Geneva Call, “Landmines in Somalia, Report of the Geneva Call Follow-up Mission to Puntland, Hiran and Bakol Regions, 15-27 September 2004,” Geneva, 2005, p. 9. Landmine Monitor has received allegations of arms shipments from Ethiopia to Somalia in 2004, even after the formation of the TFG, and in 2005, but none specifically mention antipersonnel mines. There were also allegations of arms transfers to Puntland (the home base of the current TFG president) from Yemen in July 2005, but again not specifically antipersonnel mines. Arabic Media website, www.dayniile.com, accessed 10 July 2005.

[16 ]Press Statement by Hussein Mohamed Aideed, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Interior, Geneva, 15 June 2005.

[17 ]Interview with Hussein Mohamed Aideed, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Interior, Geneva, 15 June 2005.

[18 ]Statement of Geneva Call, Standing Committee on Stockpile Destruction, Geneva, 15 June 2005.

[19 ]Somali Center for Research and Documentation (SOCRED), “Landmines in Somalia 2004,” report prepared for Landmine Monitor, April 2005. It appears that both antipersonnel and antivehicle mines were used.

[20 ]Geneva Call, “Landmines in Somalia, Report of the Geneva Call Follow-up Mission to Puntland, Hiran and Bakol Regions, 15-27 September 2004,” Geneva, 2005, p. 7. The report does not specify antipersonnel or antivehicle mines.

[21 ]Somaliland Mine Action Center (SMAC), “Landmine Events,” undated, but provided to Landmine Monitor in June 2005.

[22] Issa Hueesin and Hussein Abdulahi, “20 Netted in Operation to Rid Town of Foreigners,” Nation, 19 April 2005.

[23] SMAC, “Landmine Events,” undated, but provided to Landmine Monitor in June 2005.

[24 ]See Landmine Monitor Report 2004, p. 1113.

[25 ]Email from Edna Adan Ismail, Minister of Foreign Affairs of Somaliland, 22 June 2004; email from Saleeban Haji, Puntland Mine Action Center (PMAC), 23 June 2004.

[26 ]UN, “Country profile: Somalia,” www.mineaction.org, accessed 18 September 2005.

[27 ]UN, “Country profile: Somalia,” www.mineaction.org, accessed 18 September 2005.

[28 ]“SOMMAC report,” (undated) in email from Engineer Dahir Abdirahman Abdulle, Coordinator, SOMMAC/SOCBAL organizations, 25 May 2005.

[29] UN, “Country profile: Somalia,” www.mineaction.org, accessed 18 September 2005.

[30 ]UN, “Country profile: Somalia,” www.mineaction.org, accessed 18 September 2005.

[31 ]Email from Eng. Dahir Abdirahman Abdulle, SOMMAC/SOCBAL, 30 August 2005.

[32 ]UN, “Country profile: Somalia,” www.mineaction.org, accessed 18 September 2005.

[33 ]UN, “Country profile: Somalia,” www.mineaction.org. For more information on PMAC, see Landmine Monitor Report 2004, p. 113.

[34 ]Email from John Dingley, Chief Technical Advisor, UNDP Somalia, 21 February 2004.

[35 ]Email from John Dingley, UNDP Somalia, 8 July 2004 and 1 August 2005.

[36] Email from Ralf Drewes, TA Operations, UNDP Somalia, 14 September 2005.

[37 ]Interview with John Dingley, UNDP Somalia, in Geneva, 14 June 2005; email from John Dingley, UNDP Somalia, 28 August 2005; email from Ralf Drewes, UNDP Somalia, 14 September 2005.

[38] Email from Ralf Drewes, UNDP Somalia, 14 September 2005.

[39 ]UNMAS, “Mine Action Portfolio 2005, Somalia,” www.mineaction.org, accessed 18 September 2005.

[40] Email from Ralf Drewes, UNDP Mine Action, Somalia, 14 September 2005.

[41 ]“SOMMAC report,” (undated) in email from Engineer Dahir Abdirahman Abdulle, SOMMAC/SOCBAL, 25 May 2005.

[42 ]Email from Salebaan Haji, Manager, PMAC, 14 May 2005; email from John Dingley, UNDP Somalia, 8 July 2005.

[43 ]Email from Mike Kendellen, Director for Survey, SAC, Washington DC, 28 September 2005.

[44 ]Email from Sulieman Haji, Manager, PMAC, 14 April 2005, and final report obtained from Mike Kendellen, SAC, 20 September 2005.

[45] Preliminary results of the LIS obtained from Robert Eaton, Director, Survey Action Center (SAC), 13 July 2005.

[46 ]UNMAS, “Mine Action Portfolio 2005, Somalia,” www.mineaction.org, accessed 18 September 2005.

[47 ]Email from Ralf Drewes, UNDP Somalia, 14 September 2005.

[48 ]Email from Ralf Drewes, UNDP Somalia, 14 September 2005.

[49 ]UN, “Country profile: Somalia,” www.mineaction.org, accessed 30 July 2005.

[50 ]Email from Ralf Drewes, UNDP Somalia, 14 September 2005.

[51] Interview Mike Kendellen, SAC, Geneva, 19 September 2005.

[52 ]Email from John Dingley, UNDP Somalia, 1 August 2005.

[53] “SOMMAC report,” (undated) in email from Engineer Dahir Abdirahman Abdulle, SOMMAC/SOCBAL, 25 May 2005.

[54 ]Mine Action Investments database; emails from Elvan Isikozlu, Mine Action Team, Foreign Affairs Canada, June-August 2005; EC, “Contribution to the Landmine Monitor 2005,” by email from Nicola Marcel, RELEX Unit 3a Security Policy, EC, 19 July 2005. EC reported donating €1.8 million ($2,238,840) of which UNDP reported that $800,000 was expended in Somaliland in 2004; how the balance of EC funding was divided between Somalia and Somaliland is not known. Email from John Dingley, UNDP Somalia, 1 August 2005. Average exchange rates for 2004: US$1 = C$1.3017, €1 = $1.2438. US Federal Reserve, “List of Exchange Rates (Annual),” 3 January 2005.

[55 ]Email from Mike Kendellen, SAC, 1 August 2005.

[56 ]SOCRED, “Landmines in Somalia,” Mogadishu, 27 April 2005.

[57 ]For more information, see Landmine Monitor Report 2004, p. 1114. It should be noted that other sources report a decrease in casualties since 2000; however, this is not supported by information provided to Landmine Monitor. See Geneva Call, “Landmines in Somalia: Report of the Geneva Call Follow-up Mission to Puntland, Hiran and Bakol Regions, 15-27 September 2004,” Geneva, 2005, p. 10.

[58 ]SOCRED, “Landmines in Somalia,” Mogadishu, 27 April 2005.

[59 ]“SOMMAC report,” (undated) in email from Engineer Dahir Abdirahman Abdulle, SOMMAC/SOCBAL, 25 May 2005.

[60 ]Email sent to Landmine Monitor from Salebaan Haji, Manager, PMAC, 14 May 2005.

[61] SOCRED, “Landmines in Somalia,” Mogadishu, 27 April 2005; see also Landmine Monitor Report 2004, p. 1114.

[62 ]Preliminary results of the LIS, pp. 10, 12, 15-17, sent to Landmine Monitor by Robert Eaton, SAC, 13 July 2005. The term “recent” casualty relates to an incident occurring within the preceding two years of the date of the survey.

[63 ]Email to Landmine Monitor (HI) from Suleiman Haji Abdulle, PMAC, Garowe, 26 July 2005.

[64 ]For more information, see Landmine Monitor Report 2004, p. 1114. See also report on Somaliland in this edition of the Landmine Monitor.

[65 ]For more information, see Landmine Monitor Report 2004, p. 1114.

[66] Preliminary results of the LIS, pp. 8-9, 17-18.

[67 ]SRCS, “Annual Report 2004,” p. 2, sent to Landmine Monitor (HI) by the Norwegian Red Cross in Somalia, 8 August 2005.

[68 ]Email to Landmine Monitor (HI) from Pascal Hunt, Head of Delegation, ICRC, Mogadishu, 12 July 2005; ICRC, “Annual Report 2004,” Geneva, June 2005, pp. 100-101.

[69] Email to Landmine Monitor (HI) from Maddalena Maiuro, Assistant Mine Action Unit, Intersos, Milan, 13 July 2005.

[70 ]Email to Landmine Monitor (HI) from John Dingley, UNDP Somalia, 12 July 2005.

[71 ]Somali Red Crescent (SRCS), “Annual Report 2004,” pp. 15-17, 24, sent to Landmine Monitor (HI) by the Norwegian Red Cross in Somalia, 8 August 2005. The NRC also supports a center in Hargeisa; see Somaliland entry for more information.

[72] Email to Landmine Monitor (HI) from Silvia Danailov, Child Protection Officer, UNICEF, Mogadishu, 22 July 2005.

[73 ]Preliminary results of the LIS sent to Landmine Monitor by Bob Eaton, SAC, Washington DC, 13 July 2005, p. 16; see also Geneva Call, “Landmines in Somalia, Report of the Geneva Call Follow-up Mission to Puntland, Hiran and Bakol Regions, 15-27 September 2004,” Geneva, 2005, pp. 14-15.

[74] Email to Landmine Monitor (HI) from John Dingley, UNDP Somalia, 12 July 2005; for more information, see Landmine Monitor Report 2004, pp. 1114-1115.

[75 ]Email to Landmine Monitor (HI) from Pascal Hunt, ICRC, Mogadishu, 14 July 2005.

[76] Email sent to Landmine Monitor (HI) by John Dingley, UNDP Somalia, 12 July 2005.