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Country Reports
Somalia, Landmine Monitor Report 2006


Key developments since May 2005: The Transitional Federal Government (TFG) reiterated its intention to join the Mine Ban Treaty. There apparently has been ongoing use of antipersonnel mines by various factions in different parts of the country. In May 2006, the UN arms embargo monitoring group reported that the government of Eritrea had delivered 1,000 antipersonnel mines to militant fundamentalists in Somalia. In October 2005, the monitoring group reported that members of the TFG, including its president, and an opponent of the TFG had been involved in weapons transfers that included unspecified types of landmines. The monitoring group also stated that the governments of Ethiopia and Yemen had provided unspecified types of mines to factions in Somalia. The Somali region of Puntland completed a Landmine Impact Survey of three regions in 2005. The survey found 35 mine-impacted communities, equivalent to an estimated 6 percent of the communities of the three regions. At least 276 new mine/UXO casualties were recorded in 2005, a significant increase over the previous year. Police explosive ordnance disposal teams in Puntland reported the destruction of more than 3,000 items of unexploded ordnance between July 2004 and the end of 2005. Puntland Mine Action Center staff, jointly with EOD personnel, started providing mine risk education.


The Transitional Federal Government (TFG) was formed in August 2004. One group led by TFG President Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed and Prime Minister Ali Mohamed Ghedi set up in Jowhar (90 kilometers north of Mogadishu), while the TFG Speaker of Parliament, Sharif Hassan Sheikh Adan, other parliamentarians and some ministers settled in Mogadishu. In February 2006, the two sides agreed to make Baidoa the temporary seat of government until they could all move to Mogadishu.

However, in March 2006, a new conflict began in Mogadishu between the militia of the Union of Islamic Courts (UIC) and the US-backed Alliance for the Restoration of Peace and Counter-Terrorism.[1] The Alliance is a group led by several warlord-ministers of the TFG, who are opposed both to the leadership of the TFG and the growing power of the UIC. The 11 Islamic Courts were originally set up by traders and businesspeople in lawless neighborhoods; they have come together to form a united front against both the TFG and the US-backed warlord antiterrorism alliance.

In May and early June 2006, the Alliance warlords were largely pushed out of Mogadishu and the Benadir region, as well as some parts of the Middle Shabele region, by the UIC militia.[2] TFG Prime Minister Ghedi also dismissed four of the Alliance warlord-ministers.[3]

Mine Ban Policy

Somalia has not acceded to the Mine Ban Treaty. In his first official international meeting as Prime Minister of the TFG, Ali Mohamed Ghedi attended as an observer the First Review Conference of the Mine Ban Treaty in Nairobi in November-December 2004. He told the delegates, “It is the intention of the [TFG] to ... outlaw anti-personnel mines... My government will pursue the ratification of the treaty, but please bear in mind we have a country to re-establish, so it may not be immediate.”[4] In June 2005, the TFG’s Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Interior, Hussein Mohamed Aideed, represented the government at the intersessional Standing Committee meetings held in Geneva. He reaffirmed the TFG’s resolve to accede to the treaty “as soon as practically possible,” and called for assistance, including for stockpile destruction.[5]

The TFG did not attend as an observer the Sixth Meeting of States Parties in November-December 2005, nor the Standing Committee meetings in May 2006.

Since November 2002, 17 different Somali factions have signed Geneva Call’s Deed of Commitment for Non-State Actors.[6] All major factions except those of the Islamic Courts, Sheikh Yusuf Mohamed Siyad Indhocade, Muse Sudi Yalahow and Mohamed Qanyare Afrah have proclaimed a landmine ban, either unilaterally or through the Deed of Commitment.[7]

Production and Stockpiling

Somalia has never been known to manufacture landmines, but they are widely available throughout the country and can be purchased from weapons and ammunition markets. The Bakaraaha arms market in Mogadishu transacts $1.5 million a month in arms sales to factional leaders according to a merchant interviewed in the market in April 2006.[8]

Most, if not all, factions are thought to have some landmine stocks. TFG Deputy Prime Minister Aideed told States Parties in June 2005 that his United Somali Congress/Somali National Alliance had decided to destroy its stock of antipersonnel mines, which he told Landmine Monitor numbered about 3,500.[9] Geneva Call reported that on 24 October 2005, Aideed allowed access to his stockpile and stated his willingness to hand over the stockpile of 3,500 landmines for destruction.[10] Geneva Call said in February 2006 that it “is currently liaising with UNDP and Danish Demining Group to proceed with stockpile destruction.”[11] According to Geneva Call, four other “factions” have also provided some information about the size of their stocks.[12] Aideed told Landmine Monitor that he believed other militias held at least 10,000 antipersonnel mines in Mogadishu alone.[13]


In May 2006, the UN group monitoring the arms embargo on Somalia reported that the government of Eritrea transferred 1,000 antipersonnel mines to “militant fundamentalists” in Somalia on or around 5 March 2006.[14] Eritrea, a State Party to the Mine Ban Treaty, denied the claims as “baseless and unfounded” and labeled the report as “outrageous and regrettable.”[15] An October 2005 report from the UN monitoring group had previously stated that between 25 March and 10 April 2005, Sheik Yusuf Indohaadde, an opponent to the TFG, received two shipments of arms, including mines, from a neighboring state that was seeking to counter Ethiopian support for the TFG; it did not specify antipersonnel or antivehicle mines.[16] The May 2006 report identified the “neighboring state” as Eritrea.[17]

The May 2006 report also stated that, in January 2006, the government of Ethiopia, a State Party to the Mine Ban Treaty, provided “landmines” to Mohamed Dheere, warlord and head of Jowhar administration in Somalia.[18] The October 2005 report stated that Mohamed Dheere bartered landmines and small arms for ZU-23 antiaircraft guns; he was said to be doing this to make Jowhar secure for the TFG.[19] Neither report specified antipersonnel or antivehicle mines. Ethiopia’s Foreign Minister strongly denied the allegations in a letter to Landmine Monitor.[20] Mohamed Dheere, a Geneva Call Deed of Commitment signatory, denied receiving any antipersonnel mines.[21]

The October 2005 report further stated that the TFG President Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed and his chief of staff negotiated a deal to purchase a wide variety of arms, including mines, from the government of Yemen, which is party to the Mine Ban Treaty. The report stated that some of the arms were delivered in August 2005.[22] President Yusuf is a Geneva Call Deed of Commitment signatory. The May 2006 report said that, in August 2005, traders at the Bakaraaha arms market reportedly purchased mines and other arms from a Yemen arms trading network.[23] In none of these instances does the report specify antipersonnel or antivehicle mines.

The May 2006 report also said that Mohamed Qanyare Afrah, a key member of the US-backed Alliance for the Restoration of Peace and Counter-Terrorism, purchased mines and other arms at the Bakaraaha market in October 2005.[24]


Landmines have been used extensively in Somalia for many years during a variety of internal conflicts. Since the fall of Siyad Barre in 1991, factions vying for power in Somalia have used both antipersonnel and antivehicle mines, although reports of ongoing use have been vague and difficult to verify.

The Somaliland Mine Action Center (SMAC) told Landmine Monitor in June 2005 that landmines were still being used widely in south and central Somalia. SMAC claimed that whenever two clans come into armed conflict, each side will automatically lay some landmines as a defense.[25] A Somali news website reported in October 2005 that the Garre tribal group had started mining parts of the Gedo region in preparation for an offensive against another faction, the Mareehaan.[26]

Landmine Monitor is not aware of any specific allegations or reports of use of antipersonnel mines during the fighting in Mogadishu and elsewhere between the Islamic Courts and the Alliance for the Restoration of Peace and Counter-Terrorism, which began in March 2006.

In March and April 2006, a new conflict emerged in the Majayahan area south of the Puntland port of Bosasso, where the Australian mining company Range Resources had just started mineral exploration. The Puntland militia and a militia from the Warsangeli clan who claim rights to the land attacked each other in the area. On 8 April 2006, a landmine destroyed a Puntland militia gun-mounted vehicle, killing one person and injuring five others. A day later, Puntland militia arrested five men suspected of planting the mine.[27] Unconfirmed reports indicate that the Warsangeli militia have placed landmines at some potential exploration sites to block access to Range Resources.[28]

Mine and ERW Problem

Landmines and explosive remnants of war (ERW)―both abandoned explosive ordnance and unexploded ordnance (UXO)―affect many parts of Somalia. According to the UN, the first use of landmines occurred in Somalia during the 1964 and 1977 Ogaden wars, when minefields were laid along the Ethiopian border. This was followed by the mining of strategic facilities, camps and towns in the 1970s and 1980s during an insurgency in Puntland in northeastern Somalia, and during the 1988-1991 war of secession in Somaliland in northwestern Somalia. The break-up of Somalia in 1991 led to inter-clan fighting, resulting in widespread mine-laying.[29]

Details of the impact of mines and ERW in the south of the country remain sketchy.[30] Much of the north has been covered by two Landmine Impact Surveys (LIS) in Puntland and in the self-proclaimed state of Somaliland (see report on Somaliland in this edition of Landmine Monitor). It is likely, but unconfirmed, that renewed armed violence in the capital, Mogadishu, would result in greater contamination from mines and ERW.

Phases I and II of the LIS for the Puntland region of Somalia have been completed, revealing significant levels of contamination along the Ethiopian border and southern clan border areas, and less contamination in coastal and northern regions.[31] Mudug was found to be the most affected of the three areas covered by the phase II survey.[32]

In general, however, the UN Development Programme (UNDP) chief technical advisor for mine action believes that the impact of landmines in Somalia is not as severe as has sometimes been claimed, and that the greater threat comes from ERW: “A major concern is the amount and availability of stored or stockpiled ordnance and explosives, which, if not controlled, could be used for lethal, unlawful means.”[33] A feasibility study conducted for UNICEF in 2000 concluded that: “Somalia is sometimes described as one of the world’s most heavily mined countries. On the balance of evidence, it is not. Some numerical estimates of mine contamination here ... are questionably calculated and implausibly high... Puntland has been attributed up to 1 million; again, a more realistic figure would be 25-50,000. There are no formal estimates for the fragmented centre and south (for obvious reasons), but while common association with the northern zones – and the evidence of historical and ongoing conflict – have allowed the informal assumption of major contamination, the mine problem appears, once again, to be relatively small-scale and sporadic.”[34]

Mine Action Program

The absence of a recognized central government in Somalia until mid-2005 prevented the creation of a national mine action authority and a national mine action center. Instead, the UN focused on support for regional initiatives through its support for the Somaliland Mine Action Center and the Puntland Mine Action Center (PMAC). PMAC was set up as a regional coordination body in 2003 under Puntland’s Ministry of Interior and Disarmament, Demobilisation and Reintegration,[35] in accordance with a presidential decree.[36]

An interministerial commission, consisting of the ministries of interior, planning, health, education, information and justice, is responsible for overseeing and advising PMAC in matters relating to mine action operations.[37] PMAC has a liaison officer in Gaalkacyo and would like to set up an office there.[38]

UN plans for the creation of coordination capacities in the south and center of Somalia involve working with the TFG to build capacity and provide institutional support.[39] UNDP has claimed that, “in principle the TFG have agreed to continue the ‘Federal’ approach started by UNDP.” In late 2005, the UN favored the formation of a mine action center in one more region in 2006 and in a further two regions in 2007 and 2008, “having a total of five regional MACs and a federal MAC based in Mogadishu under the line ministry.”[40] In May 2006, however, according to the UNDP chief technical advisor, the location of the federal MAC would depend on security and the ultimate location of the government of Somalia, although the UN still endorsed a regional approach.[41]

PMAC has used version 3 of the Information Management System for Mine Action (IMSMA), which was due to be upgraded to version 4 before the end of November 2006.[42]

No national legislation or standards governing mine action are currently in place in Somalia. PMAC has developed its own standing operating procedures for explosive ordnance disposal (EOD), which were due to be reviewed by UNDP during 2006.[43]

Strategic Planning and Progress

Puntland drafted its own medium-term strategic plan for mine action, following a strategic planning workshop conducted by Cranfield Mine Action in September 2005.[44] The draft plan sets out five strategic objectives:

  • Build and maintain sustainable management capacity by mid-2006;
  • Remove the socioeconomic impact of landmines and UXO on high priority communities by 2008;
  • Collect and destroy all known antipersonnel mine stockpiles by 2006;
  • Reduce the risk posed by mines and UXO by creating a comprehensive mine risk education program by 2006; and,
  • Implement mine victim assistance by 2008.[45]

According to the plan, “the landmine problem in Puntland can be significantly reduced given suitable availability of resources. The relatively small scale extent of contamination and the fact that no re-mining takes place results in a finite problem that can be reduced to an ‘impact free’ level within a short time period of not more than three years.”[46]

The main goal for 2006 was the establishment of a national clearance capacity in Puntland to address the longer-term problem. It was recognized that this initiative, as well as the existing EOD team, needed technical advice and oversight from an international NGO. The UN was asked to help develop the mine clearance capacity of Puntland’s paramilitary Darawish force.[47]


In Puntland, a police team trained by Mechem in 2004 and by the Swedish Rescue Services Agency in early 2005 is responsible for EOD.[48] Salaries for EOD team members are paid by the regional government and the team reports on its work to PMAC.[49] Control of the EOD team, however, has been moved from PMAC back to the police.[50]

In 2005, UNDP trained and deployed an EOD team in Jowhar, Middle Shabbelle region,[51] but by mid-2006 this team was no longer functional. UNDP hoped to train, equip and deploy an EOD capacity in south and central Somalia during 2006, in coordination with the law enforcement component of the UNDP Rule of Law and Security Program and with the assistance of the International Mine Action Training Centre in Kenya.[52]

HALO Trust was not working in Puntland in 2005-2006, “due to the changing security and political situation over the disputed territory of Sool and Sanaag.” [53]

Identification of Mined Areas: Surveys and Assessments

Phase II of the Landmine Impact Survey covered the regions of Bari and Nugaal and the northern part of Mudug region in the Puntland region of northeast Somalia; the southern part of Mudug could not be surveyed for security reasons.[54]

Phase II identified 35 mine-impacted communities, equivalent to an estimated six percent of communities in the three regions. Nine of the communities were categorized as high-impact and nine were categorized as medium-impact. The most prevalent resource blockages were of pasture and roads. Eight sites with UXO were identified for spot clearance. Between 2003 and April 2005, 64 people were killed or injured by landmines and UXO.[55]

Approximately 77 percent of the impacted communities were found in Mudug region, where Gaalkacyo and Galdogob were the most heavily impacted districts, containing 90 percent of the suspected hazardous areas and more than 90 percent of recent casualties in Puntland.[56]

The eastern half of Sanaag and the entire Sool region, which Somaliland claims as its territory, were not included in phase I of the LIS. Phase II, which covered mine-affected areas of the Puntland region of Somalia, will be followed by phase III covering the disputed areas of Sool and Sanaag, and the southeast part of Togdheer region; it was expected that phase III would take seven to nine months to complete. Preliminary opinion collection was due to take place in August 2006 through the Somaliland Mine Action Center. According to the Survey Action Center (SAC) the LIS will be implemented through the two regional MACs with a two-person SAC team on the ground managing the survey, the same model as used in Puntland in phase I.[57]

UNDP has expressed concerns about the political consequences of attempting to conduct a survey in contested land.[58] SAC accepts that, due to a mixture of clan groups, there are “logistical challenges for the LIS to meet,” but thinks that the political consequences may be overstated.[59]

UNDP has plans for a phase IV of the LIS in the south of Somalia in the future, but this is dependent upon conditions of peace and stability.[60]

Mine and ERW Clearance

No formal mine clearance was conducted in Puntland in 2005, although the police EOD capacity reports the destruction of 3,032 items of UXO between July 2004 and the end of 2005.[61] The initial focus was on destruction of items collected in police stations in the region.[62] Tasking is now set by the police responding to requests from the local population.[63]

There were no reports of any accidents to police EOD personnel in 2005 or 2006 through May.[64]

Mine Risk Education

In 2005, Handicap International prepared mine risk education (MRE) materials for Puntland mine action teams in cooperation with UNDP. It trained two people from PMAC and the police EOD team who, from 11 November 2005, started providing MRE. By the end of 2005, 10 communities had benefited, two in Burtinle district, Nugaal region, and the remaining eight in Galdogob district, Mudug region. As a result of the joint visits of PMAC staff and the EOD team, communities for the first time reported UXO to the EOD team.[65]

Handicap International’s activities are part of a project, contribution to reduce the socio-economic impact of mines and UXO in North West Somalia, which is based in neighboring Somaliland. It is funded by UNICEF and Ireland until May 2007.[66]

In January 2006, the Geneva International Centre for Humanitarian Demining (GICHD) provided MRE training to PMAC staff in Garowe on behalf of UNICEF.[67]

The Somali Demining & UXO Action Group Centre (SOMMAC) organized an MRE seminar in April 2005 with the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) and Radio Shabele in Mogadishu.[68] No further activities were reported by SOMMAC.

Funding and Assistance

Canada provided the only donor funding identified as specifically for Somalia in 2005: C$110,000 (US$90,797) to UNDP for institutional support to PMAC.[69] Canada provided the same amount to UNDP for PMAC in 2004. Canada’s assistance for PMAC was due to end in early 2007.[70] 

European Commission (EC) funding is reported to have been allocated to the Puntland LIS in 2004, but the total amount is not known.[71] The EC was reported as providing €1.8 million ($2,240,820) for mine action in Somalia/Somaliland for 2006.[72] Due to EC contributions, by July 2006 funding allocated to mine action in Somalia had increased substantially from 2005. By July, EC contributions for 2006 had totaled $894,795, consisting of $189,630 for police EOD teams in southern Somalia, and $705,165 for mine clearance and capacity-building of the Puntland Armed Forces.[73]

According to a UNDP update in early 2006, funding has been sought for two years for a project to destroy mine and munitions stockpiles designated for disposal by the TFG. UNDP warned that, “it is highly likely that this critical opportunity will be lost” if rapid assistance is not forthcoming.[74]

Landmine/UXO Casualties

In 2005, Landmine Monitor recorded at least 276 new mine/UXO casualties in Somalia, including 95 killed and 174 injured, with seven unknown. Landmine Monitor identified 155 new mine casualties (60 killed and 95 injured) and 114 UXO casualties (35 killed and 79 injured); the devices causing seven casualties were not specified.[75] It is likely that this does not represent the entire scope of the problem as the Somali Center for Research and Documentation (SOCRED) was not able to record casualty data for the entire year and PMAC stated that there could be unreported casualties due to the lack of a formal data collection mechanism.[76] Nevertheless, this is a significant increase compared to the 91 new mine casualties and 11 new UXO casualties recorded by SOCRED in 2004. However, in 2004 no information was available from SOMMAC and PMAC.[77]

In 2005, SOMMAC recorded 110 new mine casualties (31 killed and 79 injured) in three landmine incidents, and 94 new UXO casualties (25 killed and 69 injured) in 11 UXO incidents. SOMMAC also recorded 11 mine casualties in Somaliland. There were at least 18 children involved in these incidents. Three incidents leading to 11 child casualties were due to playing with UXO. Four other UXO incidents were due to tampering for scrap metal or explosive material extraction.[78]

SOCRED recorded eight people killed and three injured in one landmine incident in February 2005, which was not recorded by SOMMAC. It also recorded two UXO incidents in January and February 2005, killing seven and injuring five, including six children, which were not recorded by SOMMAC.[79]

The NGO Greenleaf for Democracy reports 32 mine casualties (19 killed and 13 injured) that were not recorded by either SOMMAC or SOCRED. Three incidents were caused by antipersonnel mines, two by antivehicle mines and one by an unspecified mine.[80]

PMAC reported one mine, two UXO, and two unspecified incidents in Puntland in 2005, with nine people killed and eight injured. There were at least two females, five children and six military personnel among the casualties.[81]

In November 2005, a remote-detonated landmine killed at least one person when the convoy of TFG Prime Minister Ali Mohamed Ghedi was attacked; this casualty is not included in the above-mentioned totals.[82]

Casualties continued to be recorded in 2006, with PMAC recording two people killed and six injured as of 15 June 2006. One mine incident killed two men and injured four others in Bossaso. In February 2006, two women were injured in an UXO incident.[83] Reportedly, one person was killed and five were injured when their truck hit a landmine near Garowe in Puntland in April 2006.[84] SOCRED was not able to collect casualties, as it did not have a presence in Somalia in 2006.[85] SOMMAC has not provided any casualty data for 2006.

In the first four months of 2006, ICRC-supported centers treated six people who were reported as injured by mines/UXO. However, ICRC could not directly confirm the data regarding mine/UXO casualties.[86]

Landmine casualties are not systematically recorded in Somalia and the number of casualties is likely inaccurate and understated for some parts of the country. Due to the security situation, UNDP, which is supporting mine action in the country, has not been able to establish the two planned centers in southern and central Somalia, and as a result it cannot obtain reliable casualty information from these regions. Additionally, it seems that casualty data in the IMSMA is not updated regularly. However, UNDP has claimed that it would be addressing these issues in the second half of 2006 and expected to have more accurate data by 2007.[87] Specialists “are not 100 percent confident in the data being reported. Many are casualties of tampering with UXO and it is possible that some are victims of inter/intra-clan fighting and not necessarily landmine victims (for example, gunshot wounds).”[88]

Phase II of the LIS, conducted between August 2004 and May 2005 in Bari, Nugaal and northern Mudug, found 64 “recent” mine casualties, of whom 21 were killed and 43 injured; eight were female. The majority of casualties (90 percent) were recorded in the districts of Galdogob (40 casualties) and Gaalkacyo (17 casualties), in the Mudug region. Other casualties were recorded in Bosasso (five) and Burtinle (two), Nugaal region. Of the total casualties, 39 percent were aged between 15 and 29 years, and 25 percent were children under 15 years of age. Most casualties were traveling or herding at the time of the incident; however, 10 of the 16 child casualties under 15 years old were playing or tampering with the device.[89] Phase II of the LIS also recorded 618 older casualties, of whom 247 were reported killed and 371 injured.[90]

Phase I of the LIS recorded 276 recent casualties (92 killed and 184 injured) between March 2001 and March 2003 in Awdal, Woqooyi Galbeed, Sahil and Togdheer regions (see Somaliland report).[91] Phase III of the LIS in Sanaag and Sool regions was expected to start in June 2006 after budget approval by the European Commission through UNDP (see Somaliland report).[92]

The total number of mine casualties in Somalia is not known. Between 1995 and 2000, 4,357 landmine casualties were recorded in Bay and Bakool regions, including 2,626 people killed and 1,731 injured, and between 2001 and 2003, more than 533 mine/UXO casualties were reported.[93]

Survivor Assistance

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), “In some areas, war-damaged hospitals and clinics have been rebuilt and qualified health professionals are returning to practices, but the overall health situation remains very poor.”[94] It is estimated that only 45 percent of the total population have access to healthcare due to security.[95] According to the Somali Red Crescent Society (SRCS), only 15 percent of people in rural areas have access to health care.[96] With the assistance of international organizations, NGOs and the private sector, new hospitals and health centers have opened in Mogadishu (Arafat and al-Hayat hospital), Puntland, and Hargeisa (in Somaliland). However, many of these initiatives are private and therefore not free of charge, and a basic medical visit costs on average 50,000 Somali Shillings (approximately $3), which most people cannot afford.[97]

In the renewed 2005-2006 clashes, the few remaining hospitals with surgical capacity were overwhelmed by the numbers of war-injured. “Medical personnel indicated that many patients were dying from treatable wounds because the clinics had run short of drugs and blood and because they lacked specialists to perform complicated operations.”[98] The two main referral hospitals are Keysaney Hospital in Mogadishu North, run by the Somali Red Crescent Society with the help of the ICRC, and the community-run Medina Hospital in Mogadishu South. War-injured in rural areas often die or suffer unnecessary complications because of the lack of services or because they cannot afford treatment.[99]

Preliminary results from the LIS phase II found that in mine-affected communities in Bari, Nugaal and northern Mudug, healthcare structures were largely non-existent. The survey reported that 69 percent of mine-affected communities do not have any healthcare facilities. There is no regular ambulance service and roads are in poor condition. Of 43 recent survivors, 27 (63 percent) did not receive any form of medical assistance, and only two survivors reported receiving a device such as a prosthesis or crutches; 20 suffered an amputation and seven lost their eyesight.[100] UNDP/UNOPS identified the building of national MRE and mine victim assistance capacity in 2006 as a priority for mine action for PMAC (and the two additional MACs, security situation permitting).[101]

Somali Red Crescent Society, in partnership with UNICEF and with the assistance of ICRC, runs 42 health clinics.[102] In addition, ICRC supports five first-aid posts and 21 of the 42 SRCS health centers with funding for running costs, medicines, equipment, technical advice, training, and improving facilities. In 2005 and 2006 through mid-May, the five first-aid posts performed more than 8,200 consultations and the 21 SRCS centers performed approximately 164,000 consultations, including 1,154 war-injured, of whom 36 were alleged landmine/UXO casualties. In the first four months of 2006, approximately 370 war-injured were treated, six of whom were said to be mine/UXO casualties, although ICRC could not confirm the data regarding the six.[103] 

The two referral hospitals in Mogadishu, the Keysaney Hospital (run by SRCS) and Medina Hospital, received ICRC support in 2005 and were stretched to their limits due to the increased clashes. At the end of May 2006, the Keysaney Hospital was briefly occupied by armed militia, despite the fact it is clearly marked as a SRCS hospital, and medical services had to be limited to a minimum.[104] In 2005 and until mid-May 2006, 2,749 war-injured were treated, including 30 alleged landmine casualties. The hospitals were able to cover approximately 15 percent of their running costs through gradually increasing community support, and ICRC introduced a cost-sharing mechanism. In December 2005, ICRC opened a physiotherapy unit in Medina Hospital and started a physiotherapy training program in August 2005. The physiotherapy service will benefit the patients of the two referral hospitals and has the capacity to treat 16 people per day.[105] Other hospitals and clinics also received ad hoc medical and surgical material for treating war wounded.

INTERSOS supports the reconstruction of health and education services in central and southern Somalia. In May 2006, INTERSOS finished the second phase of a project to support the activities of Jowhar hospital, in the Middle Shabele region. Funding was provided by the European Commission and, since 2006, also by the Italian government.[106]

International Medical Corps manages and provides technical support and healthcare education classes to 79 health posts in Bay, 32 in Hiraan and 28 in Bakool regions.[107] Médecins Sans Frontières also supports a number of hospitals in Somalia.[108] Save the Children also supports several health centers with material and job training.[109]

The Norwegian Red Cross (NRC) continues to support rehabilitation centers run by SRCS in Mogadishu, Gaalkacyo, as well as Hargeisa center in Somaliland (see Somaliland report). The centers provide physiotherapy, prostheses, orthoses, crutches, a repair service, and also training for physiotherapists. NRC provides supplies and consumables, and training, and covers all the administration and personnel costs. In order to reduce the total dependency on external funding and to create local ownership, a cost-sharing model has been introduced in the centers. This generates approximately $300 per month, which is being used to facilitate travel and accommodation for patients. Transport, usually by bus, is expensive and has to be paid in US dollars, which is a challenge for most Somalis. The program is supported by the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation.[110]

In 2005, the Mogadishu center produced 235 prostheses and 141 orthoses, repaired 257 devices, and 16 mine survivors were assisted. Additionally, 719 people received physiotherapy treatment. One prosthetic/orthotic technician graduated from a three-year course at Tanzania Training Centre for Orthopaedic Technologists (TATCOT) in July 2005.[111]

In 2005, the Gaalkacyo center produced 81 prostheses, 93 orthoses, and repaired 74 devices; 19 mine survivors were assisted. The center also provided physiotherapy for 1,256 people. The Gaalkacyo center produces fewer devices because it is dependent on staff-rotation from the two other centers.[112] In March 2005, two Gaalkacyo trainees were selected for a one-year course at TATCOT in Tanzania; one of those will be replaced in September 2006.[113] In addition, a prosthetic/orthotic technician from Gaalkacyo who started his studies in 2004 will graduate from TATCOT in 2007. One physiotherapist technical assistant finished his three-year scholarship in Moshi at Kilimanjaro Christian Medical College (KCMC) in July 2005.[114]

From 15 August to 7 September 2005, an external evaluation was carried out of the rehabilitation centers. The overall conclusion was that, “A good infrastructure has been created with appropriate buildings and good equipment, and professional staff has been educated and trained at international level. All in all, since the start of the project in 1982, substantial investments have been made in an area that has filled a strong need in the Somali society. 23 years later, with three fully equipped centres, the programme has expanded to three distinct parts of the country and has a capacity to assist a substantial number of service users.” However, the report also made a number of recommendations to strengthen the rehabilitation centers.[115]

Disability Policy and Practice

Although not directly involved in survivor assistance, UNICEF and its partners are supporting a psychosocial care and support strategy in Somalia, and the training of local stakeholders (government officials, NGOs and community mobilizers) in the field of psychosocial support for vulnerable children, in particular child victims of the conflict and children with disabilities.[116]

According to the Somali Red Crescent Society, the country continues to suffer from limited education and employment opportunities.[117] There are few export markets and skilled Somalis tend to leave to work abroad. The LIS data indicates that there are few opportunities for the socioeconomic reintegration of mine survivors. Of 43 recent survivors, 12 were unemployed before the incident, increasing to 21 unemployed after the incident.[118 ] Landmine Monitor has not identified any socioeconomic reintegration programs specifically assisting mine survivors.

As of 2006, INTERSOS was in the process of establishing a vocational training center in Jowhar, with the support of private donors; it is not known if this center will benefit mine survivors or other people with disabilities.[119]

Greenleaf for Democracy provides vocational training and income-generating opportunities for disabled women who need to make a living for their family in Mogadishu. In 2005, 40 women graduated in sewing.[120]

ICRC carried out cash-for-work projects in 89 food-insecure communities and 8,872 families (53,232 people) benefited from these projects; additionally, ICRC organized agricultural and micro-economic projects.[121]

In the absence of a functioning state, there is no disability legislation in Somalia and the needs of people with disabilities are not addressed, except by NGOs and ICRC. The Ministry of Health in Puntland reportedly has legislation to protect the rights of all people with disabilities.[122]

[1] The Alliance proclaimed on 18 February 2006 was originally formed with the following: Mohamed Qanyare Afrah, Muse Sudi Yalahow, Omar Mohamoud Mohamed (Finish), Bashir Rageh Shirar, Abdirashid Shire Ilqayte, Botan Isse Alin, Isse Isman Ali and Abdishukri Ali Hersi. See for instance www.HornAfrik.com, 18 February 2006.
[2] As of mid-June 2006, Muse Sudi Yalahow and Bashir Rageh Shirar of the Anti-Terror Alliance were still in Mogadishu, while Mohamed Qanyare Afrah and others were in Jowhar with another Alliance member, Mohamed Dheere.
[3] Those dismissed were Mohamed Qanyare Afrah (Minister of National Security), Muse Sudi Yalahow (Commerce), Botan Isse Alin (Militia Reintegration) and Omar Mohamoud Mohamed (Religious Affairs).
[4] Statement by Ali Mohamed Ghedi, Prime Minister, Transitional Federal Government of Somalia (TFG), First Review Conference, Nairobi, 2 December 2004. See also, “Somalia plans to ban landmines, asks for patience,” Reuters (Nairobi), 3 December 2004.
[5] Statement by Hussein Mohamed Aideed, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Interior, TFG, Geneva, 15 June 2005.
[6] The following entities plus the person who represented them as signatory have signed the Deed of Commitment: Banadiri (Chairperson Mohamed Osman Maye); Hiran Patriotic Alliance /Somalia Reconciliation and Restoration Council (Chairperson Hasan Abdulle Qalad); Jowhar Administration (Chairperson Mohamed Omar Habeb, aka Dheere); Jubba Valley Alliance (Chairperson Col Barre Aden, aka Hiirale); Puntland State of Somalia (President Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed); Rahanweyn Resistance Army/SRRC (faction of Chairperson Col. Hassan Mohamed Nur, aka Shatigudud); Rahanweyn Resistance Army (faction of Chairperson Sheikh Adan Madobe); Somali African Muki Organization/SRRC/Nakuru (Chairperson Mowlid Ma'ane Mohamud); Somali National Front/SRRC (Chairperson Mohamed Sayid Aden); Somali Patriotic Movement/SRRC (Chairperson Gen. Aden Abdullahi Nur, aka Gabyow); Southern Somali National Movement/BIREM (Chairperson Abdullahi Sheikh Ismail); Southern Somali National Movement/SNA/SRRC (Chairperson Abdulaziz Sheikh Yusuf); Transitional National Government; United Somali Congress/Somali National Alliance/SRRC (Chairperson Hussein Mohamed Aideed); USC/North Mogadishu/SRRC (Hilowle Imam Omar); USC/SNA/SRRC/Nakuru (Chairperson Osman Hassan Ali, aka Ato); USC/Somali Salvation Army (Chairperson Omar Mohamoud Mohamed, aka Finish). List available on Geneva Call website, www.genevacall.org, accessed on 7 May 2006.
[7] However, new factions appear on the scene regularly and most of the main businessmen run their own substantial militias.
[8] Abukar Albadri, “Arms prices soar as Mogadishu braces for fresh violence,” Deutche Presse-Agentur (Mogadishu), 26 April 2006.
[9] See Landmine Monitor Report 2005, p. 871. Militiamen loyal to Aideed claim that the landmine stocks they hold are mines cleared from minefields planted in and around Mogadishu during the civil war. “Somali warlord’s son surrenders landmines,” Reuters (Mogadishu), 26 October 2005.
[10] Geneva Call, “Annual Report 2005,” p. 9; email from Pascal Bongard, Program Director for Africa, Geneva Call, 25 October 2005. See also, “Somali warlord’s son surrenders landmines,” Reuters (Mogadishu), 26 October 2005; “Warlord hands over landmines,” South African Press Association (Mogadishu), 24 October 2005.
[11] Geneva Call, “Somali Leader Hands over Stockpile of Landmines for Destruction,” Newsletter, February 2006, p. 2.
[12] According to Geneva Call, the Somali National Front said it had 200 antivehicle mines; one faction of the Rahanweyn Resistance Army said it had approximately 1,500 antivehicle and antipersonnel mines; Puntland’s Mine Action Center said it had about 800 antivehicle and antipersonnel mines in three military camps; and the Juba Valley Alliance is said to have several hundred mines. Geneva Call, “Armed Non-State Actors and Landmines,” November 2005, p. 57.
[13] Interview with Hussein Mohamed Aideed, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Interior, Geneva, 15 June 2005.
[14] “Report of the Monitoring Group on Somalia pursuant to Security Council Resolution 1630 (2005),” S/2006/229, 4 May 2006, p. 12. The report mentions Sheikh Abdisalan Ali Ibrahim as a military commander of the militant fundamentalists.
[15] “Report of the Monitoring Group on Somalia pursuant to Security Council Resolution 1630 (2005),” S/2006/229, 4 May 2006, Annex III, p. 59.
[16] “Report of the Monitoring Group on Somalia pursuant to Security Council Resolution 1587 (2005),” S/2005/625, 4 October 2005, p. 16.
[17] “Report of the Monitoring Group on Somalia pursuant to Security Council Resolution 1630 (2005),” S/2006/229, 4 May 2006, p. 10.
[18] Ibid, p. 13.
[19] “Report of the Monitoring Group on Somalia pursuant to Security Council Resolution 1587 (2005),” S/2005/625, 4 October 2005, p. 46. The UN report did not state the entity which provided the antiaircraft guns in return for mines.
[20] Letter No. 3-1/43/16/06 from Minister of Foreign Affairs Seyoum Mesfin to Stephen D. Goose, Landmine Monitor Ban Policy Coordinator, 3 July 2006.
[21] Email from Pascal Bongard, Geneva Call, 30 June 2006.
[22] “Report of the Monitoring Group on Somalia pursuant to Security Council Resolution 1587 (2005),” S/2005/625, 4 October 2005, p.13.
[23] “Report of the Monitoring Group on Somalia pursuant to Security Council Resolution 1630 (2005),” S/2006/229, 4 May 2006, p. 49.
[24] Ibid, p. 45.
[25] SMAC, “Landmine Events,” undated, but provided to Landmine Monitor in June 2005.
[26] Dayniile, www.dayniile.com, in Somali, accessed 16 October 2005; email from Ahmed H. Esa, Director, Institute for Practical and Research Training, 16 October 2005.
[27] Dayniile, www.dayniile.com, in Somali, accessed 9 April 2006; HornAfrik, www.hornafrik.com, in Somali, accessed 9 March 2006.
[28] Interviews with area residents and travelers to the area.
[29] UN, “Country Profile: Somalia,” 30 December 2005, www.mineaction.org, accessed 11 January 2006.
[30] Ibid.
[31] Ibid
[32] Presentation on the results of phase II of the LIS in Puntland by Abdirizak Isse, Deputy Manager, PMAC, Garowe, 9 January 2006.
[33] Interview with Greg Lindstrom, Chief Technical Advisor for Mine Action, Rule of Law and Security Programme, UNDP Somalia, Nairobi, 1 June 2006.
[34] Sebastian Taylor, “Landmines and UXO in Somaliland, Puntland and Central & Southern Somalia, A feasibility study,” 26 May 2000, p. 5.
[35] Presentation on the results of Phase II of the LIS in Puntland by Abdirizak Isse, PMAC, Garowe, 9 January 2006; letter to UNDP Mine Action Program, Nairobi, from Ahmed Abdi Mohamud, Ministry of Interior and Disarmament, Demobilisation and Reintegration, Garowe, 12 July 2005.
[36] Presidential Decree No. 79, 13 July 2003.
[37] PMAC, “Puntland Mine Action Strategic Plan 2005, Final draft,” Garowe, November 2005, p. 9.
[38] Interview with Abdirizak Isse, PMAC, Garowe, 14 January 2006.
[39] UN, “Country Profile: Somalia,” 30 December 2005.
[40] Ibid.
[41] Interview with Greg Lindstrom, UNDP Somalia, Nairobi, 1 June 2006.
[42] Ibid; email from Mohamed Ahmed, IMSMA Regional Coordinator for Middle East and North Africa, Geneva International Centre for Humanitarian Demining (GICHD), 4 July 2006.
[43] Interview with Greg Lindstrom, UNDP Somalia, Nairobi, 1 June 2006.
[44] See PMAC, “Puntland Mine Action Strategic Plan 2005, Final draft,” Garowe, November 2005; UN, “Country Profile: Somalia,” 30 December 2005.
[45] PMAC, “Puntland Mine Action Strategic Plan 2005, Final draft,” Garowe, November 2005, p. 5.
[46] Ibid.
[47] UN, “Country Profile: Somalia,” 30 December 2005; interview with Greg Lindstrom, UNDP Somalia, Nairobi, 1 June 2006.
[48] UNDP Somalia Mine Action Program, “Annual Report for the Mine Action Program in Somalia 2005,” Nairobi, 18 March 2006, p. 12.
[49] Interview with Abdirizak Isse, PMAC, Garowe, 14 January 2006.
[50] Interview with Greg Lindstrom, UNDP Somalia, Nairobi, 1 June 2006.
[51] UN, “Country Profile: Somalia,” 30 December 2005.
[52] Interview with Greg Lindstrom, UNDP Somalia, Nairobi, 1 June 2006; UN, “Country Profile: Somalia,” 30 December 2005.
[53] Interview with Greg Lindstrom, UNDP Somalia, Nairobi, 1 June 2006; email from Neil Ferrao, Desk Officer, HALO Trust, 23 June 2006.
[54] Survey Action Center (SAC), “Landmine Impact Survey Phase 2: Bari, Nugaal, and Northern Mudug Regions,” undated, p. 5. The first phase focused on Somaliland; see report on Somaliland in this edition of Landmine Monitor.
[55] SAC, “Landmine Impact Survey Phase 2,” undated, p. 5.
[56] Ibid.
[57] Email from Mike Kendellen, SAC, 21 July 2006.
[58] Interview with Greg Lindstrom, UNDP Somalia, Nairobi, 1 June 2006.
[59] Email from Mike Kendellen, SAC, 21 July 2006.
[60] UN, “Country Profile: Somalia,” 30 December 2005.
[61] Presentation on the results of EOD work in Puntland by Abdirizak Isse, PMAC, Garowe, 9 January 2006.
[62] Interview with Abdirizak Isse, PMAC, Garowe, 14 January 2006.
[63] Interview with Greg Lindstrom, UNDP Somalia, Nairobi, 1 June 2006.
[64] Ibid.
[65] UNDP, “Annual Report for the Mine Action Program in Somalia 2005,” 18 March 2006, p. 11.
[66] Handicap International, “Mine Risk Education: Contribution to reduce the socio-economic impact of mines and UXO in North West Somalia, January 2005-June 2006, Report,” Hargeisa/ Lyon, June 2006, pp. 5, 9.
[67] Email from Eric Filippino, Head, Socio-Economic Section, GICHD, 18 July 2006.
[68] See Landmine Monitor Report 2005, p. 874.
[69] Mine Action Investments database; email from Carly Volkes, DFAIT, 7 June 2006. Average exchange rate for 2005: US$1 = C$1.2115. US Federal Reserve, “List of Exchange Rates (Annual),” 3 January 2006.
[70] Mine Action Support Group, “MASG Newsletter-First Quarter of 2006,” Washington DC, 1 May 2006, pp. 7-8.
[71] See Landmine Monitor Report 2005, p. 874.
[72] Mine Action Support Group, “MASG Newsletter-First Quarter of 2006,” Washington DC, 1 May 2006, pp. 7-8. Average exchange rate for 2005: €1 = US$1.2449, used throughout this report. US Federal Reserve, “List of Exchange Rates (Annual),” 3 January 2006.
[73] UNMAS, “Mid-Year Project Funding Summary Chart 2006, Portfolio 2006 Chart A: Project-by-Project Funding,” 12 July 2006, www.mineaction.org.
[74] Mine Action Support Group, “MASG Newsletter First Quarter of 2006,” Washington DC, 1 May 2006, pp. 7-8.
[75] The number of casualties was derived from SOMMAC, “Press Release 2005,” Somalia, 23 January 2006; Green Leaf for Democracy, “Peace Watch, Peace Carrier: Issued by IANSA Members in Somalia,” Issue 2-Year I, January 2006, pp. 6-8; SOCRED, “Landmines in Somalia,” Mogadishu, 27 April 2005; information provided by Abdirizak Isse, PMAC, Mudug, 15 June 2006; email from Suleiman Haji Abdulle, Manager, PMAC, 14 May 2005. Dates, locations and numbers of casualties were cross-checked to avoid duplication, with only incidents specifying the explosion of a landmine or UXO included; bomb explosions and remote detonated explosions were excluded, as were incidents killing cattle. Casualties occurring in Somaliland were also excluded.
[76] Information provided by Abdirizak Isse, PMAC, Mudug, 15 June 2006.
[77] See Landmine Monitor Report 2005, p. 875.
[78] SOMMAC, “Press Release 2005,” Somalia, 23 January 2006.
[79] SOCRED, “Landmines in Somalia,” Mogadishu, 27 April 2005.
[80] Green Leaf for Democracy, “Peace Watch, Peace Carrier: Issued by IANSA Members in Somalia,” Issue 2-Year I, January 2005, pp. 6-8.
[81] Information provided by Abdirizak Isse, PMAC, Mudug, 15 June 2006; email from Suleiman Haji Abdulle, PMAC, 14 May 2006.
[82] “Somali PM Gedi escapes attack on his convoy,” Kuwait News Agency (Kuwait), 6 November 2005, accessed at www.kuna.net.kw/home/Story.aspx?Language=en&DSNO=784717&TextData=landmine%20kuwait on 10 June 2006.
[83] Information provided by Abdirizak Isse, PMAC, Mudug, 15 June 2006.
[84] Jamie Freed, “No one killed in Puntland operations, Range insists,” The Sydney Morning Herald (Sydney), 18 April 2006.
[85] Interview with Ahmed H. Esa, Institute for Practical and Research Training, Brussels, 22 May 2006.
[86] Email from Pascal Hundt, Head of Delegation, ICRC Somalia, 23 May 2006.
[87] Email from Greg Lindstrom, UNDP Somalia, 14 June 2006.
[88] Ibid.
[89] SAC, “Landmine Impact Survey Phase 2,” undated, pp. 26-32; “recent” refers to an incident occurring within two years preceding the survey.
[90] Email from Suleiman Haji Abdulle, PMAC, Garowe, 26 July 2005.
[91] SAC, “Landmine Impact Survey Phase 1: Awdal, Galbeed, Sahil and Togdheer Regions,” (final report), pp. 20-23.
[92] SAC, Newsletter, Vol. 5, No. 4, April 2006.
[93] See Landmine Monitor Report 2004, p. 1114.
[94] WHO, “Somalia Health Sector Needs Assessment,” February 2006, p. 1.
[95] Ibid.
[96] SRCS, “Annual Report 2005,” p. 1, sent by Norwegian Red Cross in Somalia, 23 May 2006.
[97] Mahamud Yahye, “Rebuilding Somali’s Health Service,” 12 February 2006, www.puntlandpost.com/newspage.html?articleid=3481, accessed on 10 June 2006.
[98] UNICEF, “Somalia Monthly Review,” May 2006, sent by Robert Kihara, Communication and External Relations Section, UNICEF Somalia, 6 June 2006.
[99] ICRC, “Annual Report 2005,” Geneva, June 2006, p. 113.
[100] SAC, “Landmine Impact Survey Phase 2,” undated, pp. 31-32.
[101] UNDP, “Annual Report for the Mine Action Program in Somalia 2005,” 18 March 2006, p. 2.
[102] SRCS, “Annual Report 2005,” p. 2.
[103] Email from Pascal Hundt, ICRC Somalia, 23 May 2006.
[104] ICRC, “Press Release: Somalia: Militiamen occupy Mogadishu’s Keysaney hospital,” 30 May 2006.
[105] ICRC, “Somalia new physiotherapy unit,” 4 December 2005.
[106] Email from Gianpaolo Chiari, Desk Officer, INTERSOS, 19 June 2006.
[107] International Medical Corps, www.imc-la.com/programs/somalia.html, accessed 10 June 2006.
[108] Email from John Dingley, Chief Technical Advisor, UNDP Somalia, 12 July 2005.
[109] Save the Children, “Emergencies Overview: Save the Children Emergency Response Programmes,” March 2006, p. 18.
[110] Norwegian Red Cross, “NORAD–Country Report, 2003-2005,” p. 2.
[111] Ibid, p. 4.
[112] Ibid, pp. 3, 5.
[113] SRCS, “Annual Report 2005,” pp. 23-27.
[114] Norwegian Red Cross, “NORAD–Country Report, 2003-2005,” p. 3.
[115] Ibid, p. 12.
[116] Email from Silvia Danailov, Child Protection Officer, UNICEF Somalia, Nairobi, 22 July 2005.
[117] SRCS, “Annual Report 2005,” p. 6, sent by Norwegian Red Cross in Somalia, 23 May 2006.
[118 ] SAC, “Landmine Impact Survey Phase 2,” undated, p. 30; Geneva Call, “Landmines in Somalia, Report of the Geneva Call Follow-up Mission to Puntland, Hiran and Bakol Regions, 15-27 September 2004,” Geneva, 2005, pp. 14-15.
[119] Email from Gianpaolo Chiari, INTERSOS, 19 June 2006.
[120] Green Leaf for Democracy, “Peace Watch, Peace Carrier: Issued by IANSA Members in Somalia,” Issue 2-Year I, January 2006, p. 5.
[121] ICRC, “Annual Report 2005,” Geneva, June 2006, p. 112.
[122] Email from John Dingley, UNDP Somalia, 12 July 2005.