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Landmine Monitor 2008 Preface


Landmines and Explosive Remnants of War

Peace agreements may be signed, and hostilities may cease, but landmines and explosive remnants of war (ERW) are an enduring legacy of conflict.

Antipersonnel mines are munitions designed to explode from the presence, proximity, or contact of a person. Antivehicle mines are munitions designed to explode from the presence, proximity, or contact of a vehicle as opposed to a person.

ERW refer to ordnance left behind after a conflict. ERW includes unexploded artillery shells, grenades, mortars, rockets, air-dropped bombs, and cluster munitions. Cluster munitions consist of containers and submunitions. Launched from the ground or the air, the containers open and disperse submunitions over a wide area.

Landmines are victim-activated and indiscriminate; whoever triggers the mine, whether a child or a soldier, becomes its next victim. Mines emplaced during a conflict against enemy forces can still kill or injure civilians decades later.

Weapons that for some reason fail to detonate as intended become unexploded ordnance (UXO). These unstable explosive devices are left behind during and after conflicts and pose dangers similar to landmines. Abandoned explosive ordnance (AXO) is explosive ordnance that has not been used during armed conflict and has been left behind and is no longer under control of the party that left it behind. It may or may not have been primed, fuzed, armed, or otherwise prepared for use. Under the international legal definition, ERW consist of UXO and AXO, but not mines.

Both landmines and ERW pose a serious and ongoing threat to civilians. These weapons can be found on roads, footpaths, farmer's fields, forests, deserts, along borders, in and surrounding houses and schools, and in other places where people are carrying out their daily activities. They deny access to food, water, and other basic needs, and inhibit freedom of movement. They prevent the repatriation of refugees and internally displaced people, and hamper the delivery of humanitarian aid.

These weapons instill fear in communities, whose citizens often know they are walking in mined areas, but have no possibility to farm other land, or take another route to school. When land cannot be cultivated, when medical systems are drained by the cost of attending to landmine/ERW casualties, and when countries must spend money clearing mines rather than paying for education, it is clear that these weapons not only cause appalling human suffering, they are also a lethal barrier to development and post-conflict reconstruction.

There are solutions to the global landmine and ERW problem. The 1997 Mine Ban Treaty provides the best framework for governments to alleviate the suffering of civilians living in areas affected by antipersonnel mines. Governments who join this treaty must stop the use, stockpiling, production, and transfer of antipersonnel mines immediately. They must destroy all stockpiled antipersonnel mines within four years, and clear all antipersonnel landmines in all mined areas under their jurisdiction or control within 10 years. In addition, States Parties in a position to do so must provide assistance for the care and treatment of landmine survivors, their families and communities, and support for mine/ERW risk education programs to help prevent mine incidents.

Until May 2008, the only international legislation explicitly covering ERW was Protocol V of the Convention on Conventional Weapons (CCW). Its provisions are considered insufficient by non-governmental organizations (NGOs), but Protocol V does make efforts to address responsibility for ERW clearance, sharing information for clearance, mine/ERW risk education, warning civilian populations, and assistance.

Using the Mine Ban Treaty as a model, building on its strengths and learning from experiences in implementing its provisions, in May 2008, the Convention on Cluster Munitions was negotiated in Dublin, Ireland, and formally adopted by a total of 107 countries. This new treaty is a legally binding agreement prohibiting cluster munitions that cause unacceptable harm to civilians. When the treaty enters into force, States Parties will be obliged to stop the use, stockpiling, production, and transfer of cluster munitions immediately. States must destroy all stockpiled cluster munitions within eight years of becoming party to the treaty, and clear all cluster munitions in areas under their jurisdiction or control within 10 years. In addition, States Parties in a position to do so must provide assistance for the care and treatment of cluster munition survivors, and support mine/ERW risk education programs to help prevent cluster munition casualties. The Convention on Cluster Munitions includes ground-breaking provisions for victim assistance, and includes those killed or injured by cluster munitions, their families and communities in the definition of a cluster munition survivor. The Convention on Cluster Munition will be opened for signature in Oslo, Norway on 3 December 2008.

These legal instruments provide a framework for taking action, but it is up to governments to implement treaty obligations, and it is the task of NGOs to work together with governments to ensure they uphold their treaty obligations.

The ICBL's ultimate goal is a landmine- and ERW-free world, where civilians can walk freely without the fear of stepping on a mine, and where children can play without mistaking an unexploded submunition for a toy.

International Campaign to Ban Landmines

The ICBL is a coalition of more than 1,000 organizations in 72 countries, working locally, nationally, and internationally to eradicate antipersonnel mines.

The campaign is a loose, flexible network, whose members share the common goal of working to eliminate antipersonnel landmines and cluster munitions.

The ICBL was launched in October 1992 by a group of six non-governmental organizations: Handicap International, Human Rights Watch, Medico International, Mines Advisory Group, Physicians for Human Rights and Vietnam Veterans of America Foundation. These founding organizations witnessed the horrendous effects of mines on the communities they were working with in Africa, Asia, the Middle East, and Latin America, and saw how mines hampered and even prevented their development efforts in these countries. They realized that a comprehensive solution was needed to address the crisis caused by landmines, and that the solution was a complete ban on antipersonnel landmines.

The founding organizations brought to the international campaign practical experience of the impact of landmines. They also brought the perspective of the different sectors they represented: human rights, children's rights, development issues, refugee issues, and medical and humanitarian relief. ICBL member campaigns contacted other NGOs, who spread the word through their networks; news of this new coalition and the need for a treaty banning antipersonnel landmines soon stretched throughout the world. The ICBL organized conferences and campaigning events in many countries to raise awareness of the landmine problem and the need for a ban, and to provide training to new campaigners to enable them to be effective advocates in their respective countries.

Campaign members worked at the local, national, regional and global level to encourage their governments to support the mine ban. The ICBL's membership grew rapidly, and today there are campaigns in 72 countries.

The Mine Ban Treaty was opened for signature on 3 December 1997 in Ottawa, Canada, more than 10 years ago. It is in part due to sustained and coordinated action by the ICBL that the Mine Ban Treaty became a reality.

Part of the ICBL's success is its ability to evolve with changing circumstances. The early days of the campaign were focused on developing a comprehensive treaty banning antipersonnel landmines. Once this goal was achieved, attention shifted to ensuring that all countries join the treaty, and that all States Parties fully implement their treaty obligations.

The ICBL works to promote the global norm against mine use, and advocates for countries who have not joined the treaty to take steps to join the treaty. The campaign also urges non-state armed groups to abide by the spirit of the treaty.

Much of the ICBL's work is focused on promoting implementation of the Mine Ban Treaty, which provides the most effective framework for eliminating antipersonnel landmines. This includes working in partnership with governments and international organizations on all aspects of treaty implementation, from stockpile destruction to mine clearance to victim assistance.

In 2007, the ICBL began actively campaigning in support of the Oslo Process to negotiate a treaty prohibiting cluster munitions that cause unacceptable harm to civilians. This marked the first time that the ICBL engaged substantively on an issue other than antipersonnel mines. The ICBL chose to begin working to address the cluster munition threat at the beginning of the Convention on Cluster Munitions negotiation process. The goal was to help prevent another humanitarian crisis similar to the global mine problem, because cluster munitions leave behind unexploded submunitions with effects similar to antipersonnel mines. The ICBL is dedicated to working toward the full universalization and implementation of the Convention on Cluster Munitions, and many ICBL member organizations have already been actively campaigning against cluster munitions.

The ICBL is committed to pushing for the complete eradication of antipersonnel mines and cluster munitions. The campaign has been successful in part because it has a clear campaign message and goal; a non-bureaucratic campaign structure and flexible strategy; and an effective partnership with other NGOs, international organizations, and governments.

Eleven years after its opening for signature, the ICBL considers the Mine Ban Treaty a success in progress, meaning that an enormous amount has been accomplished so far, but that continued vigilance is required to ensure its universal implementation. The ICBL will work to ensure similar success for the Convention on Cluster Munitions and ICBL member campaigns will continue their work until the goal of a world without mines or cluster munitions becomes a reality.

Landmine Monitor

Landmine Monitor Report 2008 is the tenth annual report. Since 1999, each of the nine previous reports have been presented to the respective annual meeting of States Parties to the Mine Ban Treaty.

Landmine Monitor is the ICBL's research and monitoring initiative and the de facto monitoring regime for the Mine Ban Treaty. It monitors and reports on States Parties' implementation of, and compliance with, the Mine Ban Treaty, and more generally, it assesses the international community's response to the humanitarian problem caused by landmines and ERW. The Landmine Monitor project represents the first time that NGOs have come together in a coordinated, systematic, and sustained way to monitor a humanitarian law or disarmament treaty, and to regularly document progress and problems, thereby successfully putting into practice the concept of civil society-based verification.

In June 1998, the ICBL formally agreed to create Landmine Monitor as an ICBL initiative. A four-member Editorial Board coordinates the Landmine Monitor system: Mines Action Canada, Handicap International, Human Rights Watch, and Norwegian People's Aid. Mines Action Canada serves as the lead agency. The Editorial Board assumes overall responsibility for, and decision-making on, the Landmine Monitor system.

Landmine Monitor is not a technical verification system or a formal inspection regime. It is an attempt by civil society to hold governments accountable to the obligations they have taken on with respect to antipersonnel mines. This is done through extensive collection, analysis, and distribution of publicly available information. Although in some cases it does entail investigative missions, Landmine Monitor is not designed to send researchers into harm's way and does not include hot war-zone reporting.

Landmine Monitor is designed to complement the States Parties' transparency reporting required under Article 7 of the Mine Ban Treaty. It reflects the shared view that transparency, trust and mutual collaboration are crucial elements for the successful eradication of antipersonnel mines. Landmine Monitor was also established in recognition of the need for independent reporting and evaluation.

Landmine Monitor aims to promote and advance discussion on mine and ERW-related issues, and to seek clarifications, to help reach the goal of a world free of mines and ERW, including cluster munitions. Landmine Monitor works in good faith to provide factual information about issues it is monitoring, in order to benefit the international community as a whole.

The Landmine Monitor system features a global reporting network and an annual report. A network of 59 Landmine Monitor researchers from 46 countries, and a 20-person Editorial Team gathered information to prepare this report. The researchers come from the ICBL's campaigning coalition and from other elements of civil society, including journalists, academics, and research institutions.

The 2008 Annual Report contains information on 120 countries and other areas with respect to ban policy, use, production, transfer, stockpiling, demining, mine/ERW risk education, casualties, victim assistance, and support for mine action. It covers affected countries, States Parties with major outstanding treaty implementation obligations, and states not party to the Mine Ban Treaty. It includes summary and analysis of trends in ban policy, mine action, mine/ERW risk education, casualties and victim assistance, and support for mine action. An Executive Summary is published separately, in addition to a set of maps. A CD-ROM containing the Annual Report and translations of the Executive Summary and maps in Arabic, French, Russian and Spanish, comes packaged together with the Executive Summary. All report contents are available online at www.icbl.org/lm/2008.

Unless otherwise specified all translations were done by Landmine Monitor.

As was the case in previous years, Landmine Monitor acknowledges that this ambitious report is limited by the time, resources, and information sources available. Landmine Monitor is a system that is continuously updated, corrected, and improved. Comments, clarifications, and corrections from governments and others are sought, in the spirit of dialogue, and in the common search for accurate and reliable information on an important subject.


A broad-based network of individuals, campaigns, and organizations produced this tenth annual Landmine Monitor report. It was assembled by a dedicated team of research coordinators and editors, with the support of a significant number of donors.

This report contains country and area updates researched by 59 Landmine Monitor researchers from 46 countries, selected by the Landmine Monitor Editorial Board with input from the Editorial Team. The researchers are cited separately in the List of Contributors. Landmine Monitor is grateful to everyone who contributed research to this report. We wish to thank the scores of individuals, campaigns, NGOs, international organizations, mine action practitioners, and governments who provided us with essential information.

We are grateful to the ICBL staff for their continued and crucial assistance in the release, distribution, and promotion of Landmine Monitor reports.

Responsibility for the coordination of Landmine Monitor's reporting network lies with the four Editorial Board organizations: Mines Action Canada (Paul Hannon) manages Landmine Monitor's production and editing, and coordinates research on support for mine action and non-state armed groups; Handicap International (Stan Brabant) coordinates research on mine/ERW risk education, casualty data, and victim assistance; Human Rights Watch (Stephen Goose) is responsible for ban policy; and Norwegian People's Aid (Stuart Casey-Maslen) coordinates research on mine action. Jacqueline Hansen manages the project and Stuart Casey-Maslen is responsible for final editing.

The Editorial Team undertook research and initial country report edits for Landmine Monitor Report 2008 from April to August 2008. The Editorial Team was led by four principal editors: Stephen Goose (ban policy), Stuart Casey-Maslen (mine action), Katleen Maes (mine/ERW risk education, casualty data and victim assistance), and Anthony Forrest (support for mine action).

Stuart Casey-Maslen (Final Editor) provided final editing from June to September 2008 with assistance from Jacqueline Hansen (Project Manager), Jack Glattbach (Copy Editor), Maureen Hollingworth (Editing Consultant), Katie Pitts and Tatiana Stephens (Project Support Officers), and Elizabeth Whitehurst (Mines Action Canada Intern).

Report formatting and the online version of the report at www.icbl.org/lm/2008 was provided by Lixar I.T. Inc. and St. Joseph Communications printed the report. Rafael Jiménez and Glenn Ruga provided design. Stéphane De Greef provided cartography services. Digital Interactive produced the CD-Rom version of the report.

We extend our gratitude to Landmine Monitor contributors. Landmine Monitor's supporters are in no way responsible for, and do not necessarily endorse, the material contained in this report. It was only possible to carry out this work with the aid of grants from:

  • Government of Australia
  • Government of Austria
  • Government of Belgium
  • Government of Canada
  • Government of the Czech Republic
  • Government of France
  • Government of Germany
  • Government of Ireland
  • Government of Luxembourg
  • Government of New Zealand
  • Government of Norway
  • Government of Spain
  • Government of Sweden
  • Government of Switzerland
  • Government of the United Kingdom
  • European Commission
  • UN Development Programme

We also thank the donors who have contributed to the individual members of the Landmine Monitor Editorial Board and other participating organizations.

List Of Contributors

Editorial Team

Thematic research teams contributed to the researching, writing and editing of all country reports. All members of the Editorial Board are also members of the Editorial Team.

Ban Policy

  • Coordinator: Steve Goose, Human Rights Watch
  • Human Rights Watch: Rachel Good, Mark Hiznay, Mary Wareham, Kerri West
  • ICBL: Anders Fink
  • Mines Action Canada: Anthony Forrest, Yeshua Moser-Puangsuwan

Mine Action

  • Coordinator: Stuart Casey-Maslen, Norwegian People's Aid
  • ICBL: Emil Hasanov, Mike Kendellen
  • Norwegian People's Aid: Nick Cumming-Bruce

Mine/ERW Risk Education, Casualty Data Collection and Victim Assistance

  • Coordinator: Katleen Maes, Handicap International
  • Handicap International: Megan Burke, Stéphane De Greef, Hugh Hosman, Loren Persi, Patrizia Pompili

Support for Mine Action

  • Coordinator: Anthony Forrest, Mines Action Canada

Editing and Production

  • Project Manager: Jacqueline Hansen, Mines Action Canada
  • Final Editor: Stuart Casey-Maslen, Mines Action Canada
  • Copy Editor: Jack Glattbach, Mines Action Canada
  • Project Support Officers: Katie Pitts, Tatiana Stephens, Mines Action Canada
  • Intern: Elizabeth Whitehurst, Mines Action Canada



  • Angola, Guinea-Bissau, Mozambique: Anna Kudarewska
  • Burundi, Chad, DR Congo, Republic of Congo, Rwanda, Senegal: Hassatou Baldé
  • Eritrea: Rita Mazzocchi
  • Kenya, Somalia, Somaliland: Tammy Orr
  • Sudan: Suzana Srnic Vukovic
  • Zambia: Robert Mtonga and Kristin Pristupa, Zambian Campaign to Ban Landmines


  • Chile, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras: Megan Burke
  • Colombia: Camilo Serna Villegas, Campaña Colombiana contra Minas and Maria Elvira Molano
  • Nicaragua: Megan Burke and Peter James Sundberg
  • Peru: Gisela Luján Andrade and Carlos Lujan Andrade
  • United States: Mark Hiznay


  • Afghanistan: Abdulhaq Qiam
  • Bangladesh: Rafique al Islam, Nonviolence International Bangladesh
  • Bhutan: Binalakshmi Nepram, Control Arms Foundation of India
  • Burma/Myanmar: Alfredo Ferrariz Lubang, Nonviolence International and Yeshua Moser-Puangsuwan, Mines Action Canada
  • Cambodia: Denise Coghlan and Ny Nhar, Cambodia Campaign to Ban Landmines
  • China: Yukie Osa, Association for Aid and Relief, Japan
  • India: Medha Bisht, Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses; Shaiq Nazir, Jammu and Kashmir Coalition of Civil Society; and Binalakshmi Nepram, Control Arms Foundation of India
  • Indonesia and Singapore: Els Coolen, Indonesian Campaign to Ban Landmines
  • Korea, RO: John H. Kim
  • Nepal: Purna Shova Chitrakar, Ban Landmines Campaign Nepal and Prashannata Wasti, Informal Sector Service Centre
  • Pakistan: Naveed Ahmad Shinwari, Community Appraisal and Motivation Program and Raza Shah Khan, Sustainable Peace and Development Organization
  • Pacific (Cook Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Marshall Islands, Palau, Tonga, Tuvalu, and Vanuatu): Mary Wareham
  • Philippines: Paz Verdades M. Santos, Philippine Campaign to Ban Landmines
  • Sri Lanka: Prasanna Rajiv Kuruppu
  • Taiwan: Serena Chang, Eden Social Welfare Foundation
  • Thailand: Shushira Chonhenchob, Nipatta Quamman, Ananchanok Sungkhasuwan and Jaruwan Tiwasiri, Handicap International

Commonwealth of Independent States

  • Azerbaijan: Hafiz Safikhanov, Azerbaijan Campaign to Ban Landmines
  • Belarus: Iouri Zagoumennov, SCAF/Belarus Campaign to Ban Landmines
  • Kyrgyzstan: Kanykey Brimkulova, IPPNW-Kyrgyzstan
  • Moldova: Iurie Pintea, Institute for Public Policy
  • Russian Federation: Roman Dolgov, IPPNW-Russia; Rayana Sadulaeva, Let's Save the Generation; and Dmitrijs Ponomarjovs
  • Tajikistan: Aziza Hakimova, Harmony of the World


  • Albania: Jonuz Kola, Victims of Mines and Arms, Kukës Association and Anila Alibali and Ruben Hajnaj, Illyricum Fund
  • Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Kosovo, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia: Suzana Srnic Vukovic
  • Cyprus and Greece: Louisa O'Brien
  • Denmark: Sidse Frich Thygesen
  • Finland: Eeva Suhonen, Peace Union of Finland
  • France: Anne Villeneuve, Handicap International
  • Latvia: Igors Tipans, Baltic International Centre for Education
  • Poland: Lidia Szafaryn, Polish Red Cross
  • Turkey: Muteber Öğreten, Initiative for a Mine-Free Turkey

Middle East and North Africa

  • Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates: Ayman Sorour, Protection
  • Iran: Khalil "Haji" Dokhanchi and Tahmineh Janghorban
  • Iraq, Jordan, Palestine: Jenny Najar
  • Lebanon: Habbouba Aoun, Jenny Najar
  • Kuwait: Raafat Misak, Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research and Abdullah Y. Al Ghunaim and S. Mahfouk, Center for Research and Studies on Kuwait
  • Syria: Ghassan Shahrour, Arab Network for Research on Landmines and Explosive Remnants of War
  • Yemen: Aisha Saeed, Yemen Mine Awareness Association

Abbreviations and Acronyms


antihandling device


antipersonnel mine


ASEAN Regional Forum


Association of Southeast Asian Nations


Australian Agency for International Development


antivehicle mine


abandoned explosive ordnance


battle area clearance


cluster bomb unit


community-based rehabilitation


1980 Convention on Conventional Weapons


Conference on Disarmament


Canadian International Development Agency


Commonwealth of Independent States




Danish Demining Group


UK Department for International Development


disabled people's organization


European Commission


European Commission Humanitarian Aid Office


Economic Community of West African States


explosive ordnance disposal


explosive remnants of war


European Union


Fiscal year


Gross Domestic Product


Gross National Income


Geneva International Centre for Humanitarian Demining


Handicap International


Human Rights Watch


International Campaign to Ban Landmines


International Committee of the Red Cross


internally displaced person


improvised explosive device


International Mine Action Standards


Information Management System for Mine Action


Integrated Regional Information Network (UN)


Implementation Support Unit


International Trust Fund (Slovenia)


Landmine Impact Survey


Mine Action Center or Mines Action Canada


Mine Action Coordination Center


Mines Advisory Group


Mine Action Support Group


mine action team or Mines Awareness Trust


mine detection dog


Non-Aligned Movement


NATO Maintenance and Supply Agency


North Atlantic Treaty Organization


non-governmental organization


Norwegian People's Aid


non-state armed group


Organization of American States


UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs


Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe


Partnership for Peace (NATO)


quality assurance


quality control


mine/ERW risk education


Survey Action Center


Southern African Development Community


suspected hazardous area

SMART goals

specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, and time-bound goals


United Nations


United Nations Development Programme


United Nations General Assembly


Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees


United Nations Children's Fund


United Nations Mine Action Service


United Nations Office for Project Services


US Agency for International Development


unexploded ordnance


victim assistance


World Health Organization


Abandoned explosive ordnance — Explosive ordnance that has not been used during an armed conflict, that has been left behind or dumped by a party to an armed conflict, and which is no longer under its control. Abandoned explosive ordnance is included under the broader category of explosive remnants of war.

Accession — Accession is the way for a state to become a party to an international treaty through a single instrument that constitutes both signature and ratification.

Adherence — The act of becoming a party to a treaty. This can be through signature and ratification, or through accession.

Antihandling device — According to the Mine Ban Treaty, an antihandling device "means a device intended to protect a mine and which is part of, linked to, attached to or placed under the mine and which activates when an attempt is made to tamper with or otherwise intentionally disturb the mine."

Antipersonnel mine — According to the Mine Ban Treaty, an antipersonnel mine "means a mine designed to be exploded by the presence, proximity or contact of a person and that will incapacitate, injure or kill one or more persons."

Antivehicle mine — According to the Mine Ban Treaty, an antivehicle mine is a mine designed "to be detonated by the presence, proximity or contact of a vehicle as opposed to a person."

Area cancellation — Area cancellation describes the process by which a suspected hazardous area is released based solely on the gathering of information that indicates that the area is not, in fact, contaminated. It does not involve the application of any mine clearance tools.

Area reduction — Area reduction describes the process by which one or more mine clearance tools (e.g. mine detection dogs, manual deminers or mechanical demining equipment) are used to gather information that locates the perimeter of a suspect hazardous area. Those areas falling outside this perimeter, or the entire area if deemed not to be mined, can be released.

Battle area clearance — The systematic and controlled clearance of dangerous areas where the explosive hazards are known not to include landmines.

Casualty — The person injured or killed in a landmine, ERW or IED incident, either through direct contact with the device or by being in its proximity.

Cluster munition — According to the Convention on Cluster Munitions a cluster munition is "A conventional munition that is designed to disperse or release explosive submunitions each weighing less than 20 kilograms, and includes those submunitions." Cluster munitions consist of containers and submunitions. Launched from the ground or air, the containers open and disperse submunitions (bomblets) over a wide area. Bomblets are typically designed to pierce armor, kill personnel, or both.

Community-based rehabilitation — Programs in affected communities (often rural areas) that are designed to supplement facility-based programs in urban centers. These programs improve service delivery, equal opportunities, and protect human rights for a larger group of people with disabilities who have limited access to service, due to uneven service distribution, high treatment cost, and limited human resource capacity.

Community liaison — According to IMAS, "liaison with mine/ERW affected communities to exchange information on the presence and impact of mines and UXO, to create a reporting link with the mine action programme and develop risk reduction strategies. Community mine action liaison aims to ensure community needs and priorities are central to the planning, implementation and monitoring of mine action operations."

Demining — The set of activities that lead to the removal of mine and ERW hazards, including survey, mapping, clearance, marking, and the handover of cleared land.

Explosive remnants of war — Under Protocol V to the Convention on Conventional Weapons, explosive remnants of war are defined as unexploded ordnance and abandoned explosive ordnance. Mines are explicitly excluded from the definition.

Explosive ordnance disposal — The detection, identification, evaluation, render safe, recovery, and disposal of explosive ordnance.

Failed cluster munition — A cluster munition that has been fired, dropped, launched, projected or otherwise delivered and which should have dispersed or released its explosive submunitions but failed to do so.

Improvised explosive device — A device placed or produced in an improvised manner incorporating explosives or noxious chemicals. An improvised explosive device (IED) may be victim-activated or command-detonated. Victim-activated IEDs are banned under the Mine Ban Treaty, but command-detonated IEDs are not.

IMAS — International mine action standards issued by the UN to improve safety and efficiency in mine action by providing guidance, establishing principles and, in some cases, defining international requirements and specifications.

IMSMA — The UN's preferred information system for the management of critical data in UN-supported field programs. IMSMA provides users with support for data collection, data storage, reporting, information analysis, and project management activities.

Landmine Impact Survey — A national or regional assessment of the socioeconomic impact on communities caused by the actual or perceived presence of mines and ERW, in order to assist the planning and prioritization of mine action programs and projects.

Land release — The set of activities and methodologies intended to release previously suspect hazardous areas with the minimum possible risk.

Mine action center — A body charged with coordinating day-to-day mine action operations, normally under the supervision of a national mine action authority. Some MACs also implement mine action activities.

Mine/ERW risk education — Activities which seek to reduce the risk of injury from mines and ERW by awareness-raising and promoting behavioral change, including public information dissemination, education and training and community mine action liaison.

National mine action authority — A governmental body, normally interministerial in nature, responsible for managing and regulating a national mine action program.

Non-state armed groups — For Landmine Monitor purposes, non-state armed groups include organizations carrying out armed rebellion or insurrection, as well as a broader range of non-state entities, such as criminal gangs and state-supported proxy forces.

Risk reduction — Those actions which lessen the probability and/or severity of physical injury to people, property, or the environment due to mines/ERW. Risk reduction can be achieved by physical measures such as clearance, fencing or marking, or through behavioral changes brought about by mine/ERW risk education.

Submunition — Any munition that, to perform its task, separates from a parent munition (cluster munition).

Survey — A study of the assessment of the location and impact of mines and ERW at the local or national level. General survey focuses on the location of mined and battle areas and the type of contamination they contain. A landmine impact survey also assesses the impact of explosive contamination on nearby communities (see separate definition for landmine impact survey). Technical survey aims to confirm and identify the outer perimeters of the hazardous area using one or more demining tools and to gather other necessary information for clearance.

Unexploded cluster munitions — Submunitions that have failed to explode as intended, becoming unexploded ordnance.

Unexploded ordnance — Unexploded ordnance (UXO) refers to munitions that were designed to explode but for some reason failed to detonate; unexploded submunitions are known as "blinds" or "duds."

Victim — The individual directly hit by a mine/ERW explosion, his or her family and community.

Victim assistance — Victim assistance includes, but is not limited to, casualty data collection, emergency and continuing medical care, physical rehabilitation, psychological support and social reintegration, economic reintegration, and laws and public policies to ensure the full and equal integration and participation of survivors, their families and communities in society.