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Landmine Monitor
 
Table of Contents
Country Reports
Abbreviations

Glossary


Abandoned explosive ordnance – Explosive ordnance that has not been used during an armed conflict, that has been left behind or dumped by a party to an armed conflict, and which is no longer under its control. Abandoned explosive ordnance is included under the broader category of explosive remnants of war.

Accession – Accession is the way for a state to become a party to an international treaty through a single instrument that constitutes both signature and ratification.

Adherence – The act of becoming a party to a treaty. This can be through signature and ratification, or through accession.

Antihandling device – According to the Mine Ban Treaty, an antihandling device “means a device intended to protect a mine and which is part of, linked to, attached to or placed under the mine and which activates when an attempt is made to tamper with or otherwise intentionally disturb the mine.”

Antipersonnel mine – According to the Mine Ban Treaty, an antipersonnel mine “means a mine designed to be exploded by the presence, proximity or contact of a person and that will incapacitate, injure or kill one or more persons.”

Antivehicle mine – According to the Mine Ban Treaty, an antivehicle mine is a mine designed “to be detonated by the presence, proximity or contact of a vehicle as opposed to a person.”

Area cancellation – Area cancellation describes the process by which a suspected hazardous area is released based solely on the gathering of information that indicates that the area is not, in fact, contaminated. It does not involve the application of any mine clearance tools.

Area reduction – Area reduction describes the process by which one or more mine clearance tools (e.g. mine detection dogs, manual deminers or mechanical demining equipment) are used to gather information that locates the perimeter of a suspect hazardous area. Those areas falling outside this perimeter, or the entire area if deemed not to be mined, can be released.

Battle area clearance – The systematic and controlled clearance of dangerous areas where the explosive hazards are known not to include landmines.

Casualty – The person injured or killed in a landmine, ERW or IED incident, either through direct contact with the device or by being in its proximity.

Cluster munition – According to the Convention on Cluster Munitions a cluster munition is “A conventional munition that is designed to disperse or release explosive submunitions each weighing less than 20 kilograms, and includes those submunitions.” Cluster munitions consist of containers and submunitions. Launched from the ground or air, the containers open and disperse submunitions (bomblets) over a wide area. Bomblets are typically designed to pierce armor, kill personnel, or both.

Community-based rehabilitation – Programs in affected communities (often rural areas) that are designed to supplement facility-based programs in urban centers. These programs improve service delivery, equal opportunities, and protect human rights for a larger group of people with disabilities who have limited access to service, due to uneven service distribution, high treatment cost, and limited human resource capacity.

Community liaison – According to IMAS, “liaison with mine/ERW affected communities to exchange information on the presence and impact of mines and UXO, to create a reporting link with the mine action programme and develop risk reduction strategies. Community mine action liaison aims to ensure community needs and priorities are central to the planning, implementation and monitoring of mine action operations.”

Demining – The set of activities that lead to the removal of mine and ERW hazards, including survey, mapping, clearance, marking, and the handover of cleared land.

Explosive remnants of war – Under Protocol V to the Convention on Conventional Weapons, explosive remnants of war are defined as unexploded ordnance and abandoned explosive ordnance. Mines are explicitly excluded from the definition.

Explosive ordnance disposal – The detection, identification, evaluation, render safe, recovery, and disposal of explosive ordnance.

Failed cluster munition – A cluster munition that has been fired, dropped, launched, projected or otherwise delivered and which should have dispersed or released its explosive submunitions but failed to do so.

Improvised explosive device – A device placed or produced in an improvised manner incorporating explosives or noxious chemicals. An improvised explosive device (IED) may be victim-activated or command-detonated. Victim-activated IEDs are banned under the Mine Ban Treaty, but command-detonated IEDs are not.

IMAS – International mine action standards issued by the UN to improve safety and efficiency in mine action by providing guidance, establishing principles and, in some cases, defining international requirements and specifications.

IMSMA – The UN’s preferred information system for the management of critical data in UN-supported field programs. IMSMA provides users with support for data collection, data storage, reporting, information analysis, and project management activities.

Landmine Impact Survey – A national or regional assessment of the socioeconomic impact on communities caused by the actual or perceived presence of mines and ERW, in order to assist the planning and prioritization of mine action programs and projects.

Land release – The set of activities and methodologies intended to release previously suspect hazardous areas with the minimum possible risk.

Mine action center – A body charged with coordinating day-to-day mine action operations, normally under the supervision of a national mine action authority. Some MACs also implement mine action activities.

Mine/ERW risk education – Activities which seek to reduce the risk of injury from mines and ERW by awareness-raising and promoting behavioral change, including public information dissemination, education and training and community mine action liaison.

National mine action authority – A governmental body, normally interministerial in nature, responsible for managing and regulating a national mine action program.

Non-state armed groups – For Landmine Monitor purposes, non-state armed groups include organizations carrying out armed rebellion or insurrection, as well as a broader range of non-state entities, such as criminal gangs and state-supported proxy forces.

Risk reduction – Those actions which lessen the probability and/or severity of physical injury to people, property, or the environment due to mines/ERW. Risk reduction can be achieved by physical measures such as clearance, fencing or marking, or through behavioral changes brought about by mine/ERW risk education.

Submunition – Any munition that, to perform its task, separates from a parent munition (cluster munition).

Survey – A study of the assessment of the location and impact of mines and ERW at the local or national level. General survey focuses on the location of mined and battle areas and the type of contamination they contain. A landmine impact survey also assesses the impact of explosive contamination on nearby communities (see separate definition for landmine impact survey). Technical survey aims to confirm and identify the outer perimeters of the hazardous area using one or more demining tools and to gather other necessary information for clearance.

Unexploded cluster munitions – Submunitions that have failed to explode as intended, becoming unexploded ordnance.

Unexploded ordnance – Unexploded ordnance (UXO) refers to munitions that were designed to explode but for some reason failed to detonate; unexploded submunitions are known as “blinds” or “duds.”

Victim – The individual directly hit by a mine/ERW explosion, his or her family and community.

Victim assistance – Victim assistance includes, but is not limited to, casualty data collection, emergency and continuing medical care, physical rehabilitation, psychological support and social reintegration, economic reintegration, and laws and public policies to ensure the full and equal integration and participation of survivors, their families and communities in society.


Abbreviations and Acronyms

AHD

Anti Handling Device

AOAV

Action On Armed Violence

AP or APM

Antipersonnel Mine

ARF ASEAN

Regional Forum

ASEAN

Association of Southeast Asian Nations

AusAID

Australian Agency for International Development

AV or AVM

Antivehicle Mine

AXO

Abandoned Explosive Ordnance

BAC

Battle Area Clearance

CBU

Cluster Bomb Unit

CBR

Community-Based Rehabilitation

CCW

1980 Convention on Conventional Weapons

CD

Conference on Disarmament

CIDA

Canadian International Development Agency

CIS

Commonwealth of Independent States

DCA

DanChurchAid

DDG

Danish Demining Group

DfID

UK Department for International Development

DPO

disabled people’s organization

EC

European Commission

ECHO

European Commission Humanitarian Aid Office

ECOWAS

Economic Community of West African States

EOD

Explosive Ordnance Disposal

ERW

Explosive Remnants of War

EU

European Union

FY

Fiscal Year

GICHD

Geneva International Centre for Humanitarian Demining

HI

Handicap International

HRW

Human Rights Watch

ICBL

International Campaign to Ban Landmines

ICRC

International Committee of the Red Cross

IDP

Internally Displaced Person

IED

Improvised Explosive Device

IMAS

International Mine Action Standards

IMSMA

Information Management System for Mine Action

IRIN

Integrated Regional Information Network (UN)

ISU

Implementation Support Unit

ITF

International Trust Fund (Slovenia)

LIS

Landmine Impact Survey

MAC

Mine Action Center or Mines Action Canada

MAG

Mines Advisory Group

MASG

Mine Action Support Group

MAT

Mine Action Team or Mines Awareness Trust

MDD

Mine Detection Dog

NAM

Non-Aligned Movement

NAMSA

NATO Maintenance and Supply Agency

NATO

North Atlantic Treaty Organization

NGO

Non-Governmental Organization

NPA

Norwegian People's Aid

NSAG

Non-State Armed Group

OAS

Organization of American States

OCHA

UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs

OSCE

Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe

PfP

Partnership for Peace (NATO)

QA

Quality Assurance

QC

Quality Control

RE

Mine/ERW Risk Education

SAC

Survey Action Center

SADC

Southern African Development Community

SHA

Suspected Hazardous Area

SMART

Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Relevant goals and Time-bound goals

UN

United Nations

UNDP

United Nations Development Programme

UNGA

United Nations General Assembly

UNHCR

Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees

UNICEF

United Nations Children's Fund

UNMAS

United Nations Mine Action Service

UNOPS

United Nations Office for Project Services

USAID

US Agency for International Development

UXO

Unexploded Ordnance

VA

Victim Assistance

WHO

World Health Organization