+   *    +     +     
About Us 
The Issues 
Our Research Products 
Order Publications 
Press Room 
Resources for Monitor Researchers 
Email Notification Receive notifications when this Country Profile is updated.


Send us your feedback on this profile

Send the Monitor your feedback by filling out this form. Responses will be channeled to editors, but will not be available online. Click if you would like to send an attachment. If you are using webmail, send attachments to .


Last Updated: 29 November 2014

Mine Ban Policy

Mine ban policy overview

Mine Ban Treaty status

State Party

National implementation measures

Existing law deemed sufficient

Transparency reporting

24 March 2014

Key developments

EU-funded stockpile destruction program underway, destruction facility construction completed and operational, destruction tests initiated, with stockpile destruction expected to reach capacity in June 2014


The Republic of Belarus acceded to the Mine Ban Treaty on 3 September 2003, becoming a State Party on 1 March 2004.

Belarus has cited various articles of its criminal code as national implementation measures, as well as decrees specific to antipersonnel mines.[1]

Belarus submitted its eleventh Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 report on 24 March 2014.

Since joining the Mine Ban Treaty a decade ago, Belarus has participated in every Review Conference, Meeting of States Parties, and intersessional meeting. It attended the Thirteenth Meeting of States Parties in Geneva in December 2013, the treaty’s intersessional Standing Committee meetings in April 2014, and the Third Review Conference of the Mine Ban Treaty in Maputo, Mozambique in June 2014. At each meeting, Belarus provided an update on its joint stockpile destruction project with the European Union (EU) and Spanish company Explosivos Alaveses SA (EXPAL).

Belarus is party to the Convention on Conventional Weapons (CCW) and its Amended Protocol II on landmines. It submitted an annual report as required by Article 13 on 24 March 2014. Belarus is also a party to CCW Protocol V on explosive remnants of war, and it submitted a national report pursuant to Article 10 on 24 March 2014.

Use, production, and transfer

Belarus has said it did not produce or export antipersonnel mines after independence in 1992 and never used antipersonnel mines for protection of its borders or for other purposes.[2]

Stockpiling and destruction

Belarus’s original stockpile of antipersonnel mines, inherited from the former Soviet Union, totaled approximately 4.5 million. It completed the destruction of non-PFM types at the end of 2006.[3]

Belarus failed to meet its deadline of 1 March 2008 to destroy all stockpiles of antipersonnel mines it owns, possesses, or has under its jurisdiction or control.[4] A 2010–2011 stockpile inventory saw the Ministry of Defence revise down the number stockpiled to 3,356,636 PFM-1 mines remaining to be destroyed.[5] This change has been reflected in subsequent Article 7 reports.[6]

Belarus has repeatedly stated that it requires international assistance in order to destroy its remaining antipersonnel mines.[7] Attempts to provide assistance through projects financed through the European Commission (EC) collapsed in 2006 and 2008 for various reasons.[8]

A new program was “re-launched” by the EU on 30 June 2010, with a period of performance stipulated at 28 months.[9] In December 2010, the EU announced that the contract was awarded to the company EXPAL for a total value of €3,900,000 (US$5,171,790).[10]

The joint destruction project by Belarus and EXPAL requires:

1.      Installation and commissioning of a custom-built destruction facility at a military base near Rechitsa in southeast Belarus on a site approved by the EU in 2009;

2.      The provision of monitoring equipment to enable the project team to supervise and report on the destruction process in real time;

3.      The complete destruction of the stockpiled PFM-1 and PFM-1S series munitions (by cold detonation technology in an armored kiln).

In December 2011, Belarus told States Parties that “all necessary administrative procedures have been finalized by EXPAL and Belarusian authorities,” that construction of the destruction facility was underway, and that destruction was about to begin. Belarus announced an expected completion date of May 2013.[11] However, in May 2012, Belarus reported that the construction of the destruction facility was taking longer than planned and described steps it had taken to facilitate the import of necessary materials.[12] Subsequent information provided informally to the Monitor indicated that destruction would begin by the end of 2012 and that the contractor would need to request a one-year extension (at least) to the initially set deadline of May 2013.[13]

In December 2012, Belarus informed States Parties that there had been delays in the construction of the facility, including a change in subcontractors in mid-2012, but it said the destruction should begin in the first half of 2013. It emphasized that the PFM-1 are unique and industrial technology to destroy them is not fully developed, so an additional safety system was needed in case the liquid used to destroy the mines in the facilities unexpectedly leaks.[14]

In May 2013, Belarus informed States Parties that EXPAL was in the process of completing the construction of the destruction facility, which it said was “90 percent operational.” Work remaining to be done included the assembly of the chamber where the mines would be destroyed and the installation of an alarm system. Belarus stated, however, that it could not provide an exact deadline for when the mines would be destroyed.[15]

At the April 2014 intersessional Standing Committee meetings, Belarus reported that EXPAL had completed the construction of the destruction facility and that personnel were testing and adjusting equipment. Belarus announced that EXPAL destroyed the first mines at the facility on 26 March 2014, when it conducted two tests that destroyed two KSF-1 canisters, each containing 144 PFM-1 mines.[16]

In June 2014, Belarus informed States Parties that the destruction facility opened in May 2014 and was expected to reach its planned operational capacity of the destruction of 8,500 mines a day by the end of June.[17] Belarus stressed its full support for the convention’s goals and pledged to spare no effort to complete its obligations in the near future but did not provide a timeline for the expected completion of the stockpile destruction.[18]

Mines retained for research and training

In Article 7 reports submitted in 2014 and 2013, Belarus reported the retention of 6,022 antipersonnel mines for research and training purposes.[19] This is eight fewer mines than the 6,030 mines that Belarus retained without change from 2004 until 2012.[20] The eight mines were destroyed in February 2012 during training in mine detection and mine destruction activities.[21] Belarus has said that it retains antipersonnel mines for training of mine detection dogs, testing of protective equipment and mine detectors, and training of personnel.[22]


[2] Statement by Aleh Shloma, Representative of Belarus, UN General Assembly First Committee, New York, 21 October 2004.

[3] Belarus destroyed approximately 300,000 antipersonnel mines between 1992 and 2003. In cooperation with the NATO Maintenance and Supply Agency and donor countries, Belarus completed the destruction of 294,775 antipersonnel mines other than PFM-type mines in December 2006. This stockpile consisted of 45,425 PMN, 114,384 PMN-2, 12,799 POMZ-2, 64,843 POMZ-2M, and 57,324 POM-2 antipersonnel mines. A total of 217,133 mines were destroyed by open detonation and 12,799 POMZ-2 and 64,843 POMZ-2M mines were disassembled at Belarusian industrial plants. Also in 2006, Belarus destroyed the victim-activated components of its 5,536 MON-type and 200,826 OZM-72 mines.

[4] In informing States Parties that it would not meet the deadline, Belarus stated that it “is not capable to destroy [sic] over 3.3 million stockpiled PFM type mines in terms stipulated in the Convention…The international community has no experience so far in destruction of large quantity of the PFM mines with the environmentally appropriate technology. Open detonation of this type of mines may cause severe consequences for population and environment and is therefore unacceptable. There has always been an understanding that the issue of PFM type mines is unique from the point of view of the Convention…We have repeatedly stated that the Republic of Belarus has no possibilities to accomplish the destruction of the stockpiled PFM mines without the assistance of the international community. In this regard we welcome and highly appreciate the contribution of the European Community in solving this issue.” Note Verbale and Non-Paper sent from the Permanent Mission of Belarus to the UN in Geneva to the Permanent Mission of Jordan to the UN in Geneva (as President of the Eighth Meeting of States Parties), 18 February 2008.

[5] Statement of Belarus, Mine Ban Treaty Standing Committee on Stockpile Destruction, Geneva, 20 June 2011. Notes by the ICBL. In 2004, Belarus initially declared a stockpile of 3,374,864 PFM and PFM-1S type antipersonnel mines. As of June 2010, Belarus reported possessing 3,370,172 PFM-1 mines. The slight decrease in stockpiles is the result of a Belarusian private company, Stroyenergo Joint Stock Co., destroying 1,812 PFM-1 mines during a test of its pilot destruction unit in 2009.

[6] Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report, Form B, 26 March 2013; and Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report, Form B, 30 April 2011.

[7] See for example, statement of Belarus, Mine Ban Treaty Ninth Meeting of States Parties, Geneva, 26 November 2008; and statement of Belarus, Mine Ban Treaty Standing Committee on Stockpile Destruction, Geneva, 25 May 2009.

[8] See Landmine Monitor Report 2009, pp. 196–197.

[9] EU, “Service procurement notice, UA-Kiev: ENPI — destruction of PFM-1 series ammunition in Belarus 2010/S 124-188668,” 30 June 2010.

[10] Belarus, “Contract award notice, BY-Minsk: destruction of PFM-1 series ammunition in Belarus 2011/S 14-020376,” 21 January 2011. Average exchange rate for 2010: €1=US$1.3261. US Federal Reserve, “List of Exchange Rates (Annual),” 6 January 2011.

[11] Statement of Belarus, Mine Ban Treaty Eleventh Meeting of States Parties, Phnom Penh, 1 December 2011.

[12] Statement of Belarus, Mine Ban Treaty Standing Committee on Stockpile Destruction, Geneva, 21 May 2012. It noted the creation in February 2012 of a Coordinating Committee in which representatives of the Belarus government, the EU, and the contractor were meeting monthly to address outstanding issues. Further work was still needed to finish the construction, including treatment of gases released during destruction of the mines and an associated environmental impact study. Belarus did not provide a date for starting the destruction and stated that destruction should be finished “in 2013.” In November 2012, EXPAL provided the Belarus authorities a description of proposed destruction technology that, according to Belarus legislation, must be evaluated by the Belarus Ministry of Environmental Protection and in public hearings held for the community of Rechitsa. ICBL report on activities, Mine Ban Treaty Twelfth Meeting of States Parties, December 2012.

[13] Email from Iouri Zagoumennov, Support Center for Associations and Foundations (SCAF) Belarus, 26 September 2012.

[14] Statement of Belarus, Mine Ban Treaty Twelfth Meeting of States Parties, Geneva, 6 December 2012.

[15] It said that since the last meeting of States Parties, the EU had audited the project and commended the work done by all stakeholders. Belarus committed to “continue to keep States Parties updated” on its progress towards stockpile destruction. Statement of Belarus, Mine Ban Treaty Standing Committee on Stockpile Destruction, Geneva, 27 May 2013.

[16] Statement of Belarus, Mine Ban Treaty Intersessional Standing Committee Meetings, Geneva, 11 April 2014. Notes by ICBL.

[17] Statement of Belarus, Mine Ban Treaty Third Review Conference, Maputo, 24 June 2014.

[18] Ibid., 27 June 2014.

[19] Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report, Form D, 24 March 2014; and Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report, Form D, 26 March 2013.

[20] Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report, Form D, 26 March 2013; and Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report, Form D, 17 April 2012.

[21] Statement of Belarus, Mine Ban Treaty Standing Committee on General Status of the Convention, Mine Ban Treaty, Geneva, 25 May 2012.

[22] This was first articulated in an interview with Maj. Gen. Sergei Luchina, Ministry of Defence, and Valery Kolesnik, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Geneva, 15 June 2005. Belarus restated this during the 25 June 2010 meeting of the Mine Ban Treaty Standing Committee on the General Status and Operation of the Convention in Geneva . http://www.apminebanconvention.org/fileadmin/pdf/other_languages/russian/MBC/IWP/SC_2010_06/SCGS-Art3-25June2010-Belarus-Ru.pdf  (in Russian, unofficial translation by Landmine Monitor).