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Last Updated: 09 October 2014

Mine Action

Contamination and Impact

Overall Mine Action Performance: VERY POOR[1]

Performance Indicator


Problem understood


Target date for completion of clearance


Targeted clearance


Efficient clearance


National funding of program


Timely clearance


Land release system


National mine action standards


Reporting on progress


Improving performance




The Republic of Chad is contaminated with antipersonnel and antivehicle mines, a legacy resulting from the 1973 Libyan invasion and 30 years of internal conflict.

The extent of mine contamination in Chad is, though, still not known. Earlier estimates of 670km2 or more of suspected hazardous areas (SHAs) outside the northern Tibesti region, identified by a 1999–2001 Landmine Impact Survey and subsequent survey and clearance, have since been understood as significantly overstating the mine problem. A partial survey by Mines Advisory Group (MAG), completed in 2012 and which covered part of Tibesti, identified 110 confirmed hazardous areas (CHAs) covering 58km2 in three regions in northern Chad. However, more contaminated area could be identified in Tibesti along the border with Libya and in the Moyen Chari region in the south on the border with the Central African Republic, as both areas need further survey.

Mine Action Program

Chad’s National Mine Action Authority is the High Commission for National Demining (Haut Commissariat National de Deminage, HCND). The National Demining Center (Centre National de Deminage, CND) serves as the national mine action center in Chad. The CND also possesses demining and explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) teams. In 2013, Chad had only one international demining operator, MAG, which withdrew from the country in early 2014 following an end to its funding.[2]

Since 2008, Chad’s mine action program has suffered from a lack of international funding, weak government oversight, and persistent mismanagement within the CND, resulting in little or no demining until October 2012 when the European Union provided funding to MAG.[3] In 2012, management problems at the CND resulted in the dismissal of its director and hundreds of employees. CND reduced its personnel from 720 to 320.[4] CND demining operations have also been plagued by poor equipment and lack of funding.[5] In an update to States Parties in April 2014, Chad noted that the CND had “experienced some difficulties” in presenting the results of its work.[6]

Strategic planning

In May 2013, the government of Chad approved a new strategic mine action plan for 2013–2017.[7] Chad has made generally disappointing progress in clearing mined areas and is now planning to complete all clearance only by the end of 2019, in consonance with its extended Article 5 deadline.

Land Release

Chad did not report on the extent of land release in 2012 or 2013. MAG has not reported publicly on its survey and clearance in 2013, although it reported to the Monitor that it had destroyed three antipersonnel mines and 15 antivehicle mines during operations in 2013.

Article 5 Compliance

Under Article 5 of the Mine Ban Treaty (and in accordance with the six-year extension request granted by States Parties in 2013), Chad is required to destroy all antipersonnel mines in mined areas under its jurisdiction or control as soon as possible, but not later than 1 January 2020.

Chad’s Article 5 deadline has been extended its three times, most recently in 2013. Its initial Article 5 deadline expired on 1 November 2009.

On 5 December 2013, the Thirteenth Meeting of the States Parties granted Chad’s third extension request, but noted that “while steps have been taken to clarify the remaining challenge and while a national mine action strategy has been prepared, a detailed annual work plan for survey and clearance leading to completion and based on accurate and coherent data was still missing.” The meeting requested that Chad submit to the President of the Thirteenth Meeting of States Parties, by the Third Review Conference, a clear and detailed national survey and clearance plan leading to completion of its Article 5 obligations.[8]

The Meeting also requested that Chad report to States Parties by 2015 on:

·         The number, location, and size of remaining mined areas, plans to clear or otherwise release these areas and information on areas already released, disaggregated by release through clearance, technical survey, and non-technical survey;

·         Efforts to diversify funding sources and to reach out to other relevant parts of the government to contribute to covering the costs of implementing Chad’s national plans for survey and mine clearance;

·         Efforts to address inadequacies in management of mine action information; and

·         Whether circumstances which had previously impeded implementation of Article 5 were continuing to affect fulfillment of Chad’s obligations.[9]

It remains very unclear whether Chad is capable of meeting its Article 5 clearance deadline of the end of 2019.

Support for Mine Action

In 2013, Chad received US$702,943 in international assistance from four donors, most for victim assistance.[10]


·         Chad urgently needs to re-establish a mine action program worthy of the name and to attract international technical and financial support to the country.

·         Chad should review its 2013–2017 strategic plan, make any necessary adjustments, and make public a realistic and detailed strategic plan for full compliance with its Article 5 obligations.


[1] See “Mine Action Program Performance” for more information on performance indicators.

[2] Email from Greg Crowther, Regional Programmes Manager, MAG, 19 March 2014.

[3] Presentation of Chad at African Union/ICRC Weapons Contamination Workshop, Addis Ababa, 3–5 March 2013; and Mine Ban Treaty Third Article 5 deadline Extension Request, 2 May 2013, p. 12.

[4] Mine Ban Treaty Third Article 5 deadline Extension Request, 2 May 2013; and interview with Emmanuel Sauvage, UNDP, in Geneva, 16 April 2013.

[5] Interview with Emmanuel Sauvage, UNDP, in Geneva, 16 April 2013.

[6] Statement of Chad, Standing Committee on Mine Clearance, Geneva, 11 April 2014.

[7] Mine action strategic plan 2013–2017, annexed to its Mine Ban Treaty Third Article 5 deadline Extension Request, 2 May 2013.

[9] Ibid.

[10] Responses to Monitor questionnaire by Jérôme Legrand, Policy Officer, Weapons of Mass Destruction, Conventional Weapons and Space Division, European External Action Service, 5 May 2014; and Anna Merrifield, Desk Officer, Finnish Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 22 April 2014; Germany Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 7 Report, Form I, 5 May 2014; and Japan Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 7 Report, Form I, 30 April 2014.