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Last Updated: 28 November 2013

Mine Ban Policy

Mine ban policy overview

Mine Ban Treaty status

State Party

National implementation measures

National implementation legislation, Law 759, came into effect on 25 July 2002

Article 7 reporting

Submitted in 2013 covering calendar year 2012


The Republic of Colombia signed the Mine Ban Treaty on 3 December 1997 and ratified on 6 September 2000, becoming a State Party on 1 March 2001.

National implementation legislation, Law 759, came into effect on 25 July 2002.[1] In relation to the Mine Ban Treaty, Colombia has also passed laws on victim assistance, land restitution, and civilian humanitarian demining operations. Law 1421 of 2010 permits NGOs to conduct humanitarian demining operations in the country.[2] On 13 July 2011, the Colombian Presidential Program for Comprehensive Mine Action (Programa Presidencial de Acción Integral Contra Minas Antipersonales, PAICMA) published the draft regulatory decree of Law 1421.[3] On 10 October 2011, the President of Colombia, through the Ministry of Defense, approved decree 3750 which promulgated Law 1421 regulating demining by civil society organizations.[4]

Colombia submitted its 13th Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 report in 2013, which covered calendar year 2012.[5] Under national implementation measures, Colombia listed Law 1448 of 2011, the Victims and Land Restitution Law (Ley de Victimas y de Restitución de Tierra), in its 2012 report.[6] The section remained unchanged in its 2013 report. In the 2011 report, Colombia listed its “main operational results” against non-state armed groups (NSAGs) during 2010, including the number of demobilizations and captures.[7]

Colombia attended the Twelfth Meeting of States Parties to the Mine Ban Treaty in Geneva in December 2012, where it made several statements. Colombia also participated in the intersessional Standing Committee meetings in May 2013.

Colombia has continued its activity in support of the Mine Ban Treaty at the highest levels. It hosted the Second Review Conference of the Mine Ban Treaty in Cartagena in November–December 2009. Colombia served as co-chair of the Standing Committee on Mine Clearance, Mine Risk Education and Mine Action Technologies in 2011. Colombia is part of an informal working group of States Parties from Latin America that monitors implementation of the Cartagena Action Plan.[8]

Colombia is a signatory to the Convention on Cluster Munitions. It is party to the Convention on Conventional Weapons (CCW) and its Amended Protocol II on landmines, but has never submitted a CCW Amended Protocol II Article 13 annual report.

The Colombian Campaign against Landmines (Campaña Colombiana contra Minas, CCCM) has continued its work to increase awareness of the country’s mine problem and its solutions.[9] It has called on the government to use military demining teams to clear coca crops because civilians employed by the Colombian government to eradicate the crops have become casualties due to explosive devices.[10]

The Colombian NGO Fundación Arcángeles partnered with the ICBL and the UN Mine Action Service to again hold a global “Lend Your Leg” campaign from 1 March until 4 April 2013. The activity, which involves people making the symbolic gesture of rolling up a pant leg in support of efforts against landmines and in solidarity with victims, was inspired by the Remangate (“Roll-up”) activity first organized by Fundación Arcangeles in Colombia in 2011.

In 2012, Colombian music star Juanes joined the Convention’s Special Envoy, Prince Mired Raad Al Hussein of Jordan, to participate in a high-level group in support of the Mine Ban Treaty’s universalization.[11]

Production, transfer, use, and stockpiling

Colombia’s State Military Industry (Industria Militar, INDUMIL) ceased production of antipersonnel mines in September 1998 and destroyed its production equipment on 18 November 1999.[12]

The government of Colombia is not known to have ever exported antipersonnel mines.

Colombia reported completion of the destruction of its stockpile of 18,531 antipersonnel mines on 24 October 2004.[13]

Since 2007, Colombia has retained a total of 586 MAP-1 mines for training purposes. It declared a total of 586 MAP-1 mines retained for training purposes in its 2009 Article 7 report. In the 2010, 2011, and 2012 reports, Colombia did not provide a number but declared “no change in the quantity of retained antipersonnel mines” since 2009.[14] Colombia has not destroyed or consumed any mines in training activities since a total of 300 retained mines were destroyed in three separate events in 2006.[15] In March 2007, the Antipersonnel Mines Observatory (Observatorio de las Minas Antipersonal) said that Colombia had made a decision in 2006 to destroy all of its antipersonnel mines previously retained for training.[16]

Colombia has not reported in detail on the intended purposes and actual uses of its retained mines, as agreed by States Parties. However, in May 2011, it informed the Monitor that the 586 retained mines were “used for training the humanitarian demining units [of the armed forces], in the use of equipment for mine clearance.” In the event it was to destroy these mines, Colombia said it would account for this change in its Article 7 report.[17]

Antipersonnel mines discovered during mine clearance are destroyed on site and not kept for training purposes.[18]

Transfer and production by non-state armed groups

There have been past reports of mines transferred as part of illegal weapons shipments destined for NSAGs in Colombia, but the Monitor knows of no reports since 2003.

NSAGs in Colombia are experts in the production of explosive devices. Both the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia-Ejército del Pueblo, FARC) and the National Liberation Army (Unión Camilista-Ejército de Liberación Nacional, ELN) manufacture antipersonnel mines and improvised explosive devices (IEDs) that are both victim-activated and remotely-controlled.

Colombia’s Article 7 reports contain information on mines produced by NSAGs by type, dimensions, fuzing, explosive type and content, and metallic content; the reports also include photographs and additional information. Twelve different design types are manufactured, which include antipersonnel, antivehicle, and Claymore-type directional mines, as well as IEDs. The military states that the mines are sometimes fitted with antihandling devices.[19]

Use by non-state armed groups      

FARC has continued to use antipersonnel mines and IEDs on a regular basis. Government forces continued to recover mines from the ELN, which has been documented as an antipersonnel mine user. In the past decade, paramilitary forces have also used antipersonnel mines, most notably the United Self-Defense Forces of Colombia until its disbandment in 2006.[20]

In August 2012, the ELN again called for peace talks with the government, but the vice-president stated that the ELN should halt mine use before commencing peace talks.[21] In September, the ELN confirmed that the landmine issue must be an element of peace talks and that it was willing to collaborate to facilitate demining activities in certain areas in the southwest of the country.[22]

FARC is probably the most prolific user of antipersonnel mines among rebel groups anywhere in the world. Peace talks between the government of Colombia and FARC continued in Havana in the first half of 2013. The CCCM has called for a special agreement to be reached to demine areas along Colombia’s border areas and southern provinces where the fighting with the FARC has been most intense.[23]

Colombian NSAGs lay mines near their campsites or bases, on other paths that lead to areas of strategic importance (such as paths to main transit routes along mountain ridges) and to protect caches of explosives, weapons, medicine, and clothing.[24] NSAGs, predominantly FARC, also plant antipersonnel mines in or near coca fields to prevent eradication efforts, causing casualties among coca eradicators.[25] In 2012, the ICBL expressed concern to the government of Colombia regarding the use of civilians to undertake coca eradication when these areas are increasingly known to be mined.[26]

The areas of Colombia where armed conflict has been intense and landmines have been planted often coincide with areas from which internally displaced persons (IDPs) fled and to which they are now seeking to return. In September 2013, Human Rights Watch (HRW) reported that, according to the Restitution Unit, the government has recorded landmine incidents in approximately 70 percent of the municipalities where IDPs have filed land restitution claims.[27]

Media reports and statements by the armed forces show how the Colombian Army has continued to recover mines from FARC and the ELN in its operations in 2012 and the first half of 2013. According to media reports, in August 2012 the Colombian army found 20 antipersonnel mines reportedly planted by FARC in Tolima and Arauca.[28] A dozen antipersonnel mines allegedly belonging to FARC were discovered in September 2012 in a minefield in Cordoba[29] and in a military raid of a FARC camp in Norte de Santander.[30] In October, four antipersonnel mines were found by the army in different departments.[31] An antipersonnel mine and five IEDs reportedly laid by the ELN were also discovered by the army in the same month.

In November 2012, the Colombian Army discovered nine antipersonnel mines reportedly planted by FARC in the departments of Narino,[32] Antioquia,[33] La Cordillera,[34] and Buenaventura.[35] The army also discovered an antipersonnel mine laid by the ELN in Casanare.51

In December 2012, nine landmines attributed to FARC were discovered in Caqueta[36] and Norte de Santander.[37]

FARC and the ELN continued to use landmines in 2013, with the greatest number of media reports appearing between June and August. Relatively few incidents were reported during the first half of 2013, although in April the Army discovered two weapons caches in Albania in the department of Caqueta containing a total of 7,345 antipersonnel mines.[38]

In June 2013, the Colombian Army located a minefield near a home in village of Crucero near Tulua in Cauca;[39] found and destroyed seven IEDs in the municipalities of Sardinata, Teorama, and Tibú in Norte de Santander[40]; destroyed 31 IEDs in the municipalities of Jambalo, Morales, and Suarz in Cauca department[41]; destroyed 14 IEDs installed by the FARC in the departments of Cauca, Antioquia, and Meta[42]; reportedly found 18 explosive devices belonging to FARC in Antioquia and 2 IEDs belonging to FARC in Calamar, Guivare[43]; and destroyed eight IEDs in the departments of Bolivar, Santander, Norte de Santander, Antioquia, and Meta.[44]

In July 2013, the army destroyed six explosives found in the rural area near Patio Bonita village in the municipality of Buenos Aires in the department of Cauca[45]; destroyed four IEDs that had been laid by FARC at La Punta in the municipality of Tumaco in Narino department and in the village of Plan de Zuniga in the municipality of Caldono in Cauca department[46]; and destroyed three IEDs “belonging to Captain Mauricio Front of the ELN” in the village of Amalfi Areiza in Antioquia.[47]

In August 2013, in less than a week, 70 IEDs were found by the army in the town of La Paz in the Cauca department, and a minefield containing eight explosives was found in a rural area near the village of Bolo Blanco in the municipality of Pradera in the department of Cauca.[48] Also in August 2013, the army found and destroyed a mined area of five IEDs “installed by narco-terrorists of Antonia Santos Mobile Column of the FARC” in the village of El Placer, Sardinata municipality.[49]


[1] For details on penal sanctions and other aspects of Law 759, see Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report, Form A, 6 May 2005; and Landmine Monitor Report 2005, p. 255.

[2] Statement of Colombia, Mine Ban Treaty Standing Committee on Mine Clearance, Geneva, 20 June 2011.

[3] “Presentación borradores de los documentos del decreto reglamentario de la Ley 1421 de 2010 y Estándares Nacionales de Desminado Humanitario” (“Presentation of draft documents of the Decree Law 1421 of 2010 and National Standards for Humanitarian Demining”), 15 July 2011, www.accioncontraminas.gov.co/Noticias/2011/Paginas/110715a.aspx.

[4] Ministry of Defense, “Decreto Número 3750 de 2011” (“Decree Number 3750 of 2011”), 10 October 2011, www.accioncontraminas.gov.co/Documents/Decreto_3750_2011.pdf.

[5] Previous reports were submitted on 25 April 2012, 30 April 2011, 30 April 2010, 30 April 2009, in April 2008, in April 2007, and on 29 June 2006, 6 May 2005, 11 May 2004, 27 May 2003, 6 August 2002, and 15 March 2002.

[6] See Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report, Form A, 25 April 2012.

[7] See Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report, Form A, 30 April 2011.

[8] Statement of Guatemala, Mine Ban Treaty Standing Committee on the General Status and Operation, Geneva, 24 June 2011. Notes by the ICBL.

[9] CCCM was established in 2000 and has local sections in 22 of the 32 departments of Colombia.

[10] Anastasia Moloney, “Colombia’s coca clearers face landmine danger,” Alertnet, 30 November 2011, www.trust.org/alertnet/news/colombias-coca-clearers-face-landmine-danger/.

[11] Mine Ban Convention Implementation Support Unit press release, “International music superstar Juanes joins high level push to ban landmines,” 25 May 2012, www.apminebanconvention.org/fileadmin/pdf/mbc/press-releases/PressRelease-Juanes-25May2012.pdf.

[12] Interviews with Eng. Sergio Rodríguez, Second Technical Manager, INDUMIL, 5 July 2000 and 24 July 2001. As of 2001, INDUMIL was still producing Claymore-type directional fragmentation mines. Colombia has stated that these mines are used only in command-detonated mode, as permitted by the Mine Ban Treaty. However, Colombia has not reported on steps it has taken to ensure that these mines are used only in command-detonated mode.

[13] In addition to these 18,531 mines destroyed, the government has reported three other destructions of a total of 3,404 antipersonnel mines. Over the years, there have been many inconsistencies and discrepancies in Colombia’s count of stockpiled mines and their destruction. The Ministry of Defense sent a letter to the Monitor in September 2005 to clarify many of the problems. For details, see Landmine Monitor Report 2006, p. 302.

[14] “Colombia no reporta novedad con respecto al informe anterior” (“Colombia does not report any change with respect to the previous report”), Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report, Form D, April 2013.

[15] In 2003 and 2004, Colombia reported it retained 986 mines for training. It reduced that number to 886 in 2005 when it decided the larger number was not necessary. It destroyed 300 more mines in 2006 (100 each in March, September, and December), but the number has not changed since December 2006. See Landmine Monitor Report 2007, pp. 267–268; and Landmine Monitor Report 2006, pp. 302–303.

[16] The coordinator said the decision was made primarily because the majority of mines laid in the country are of NSAG design and do not correspond to the MAP-1 mines used for demining instruction. Interview with Luz Piedad Herrera, Coordinator, Antipersonnel Mines Observatory, Bogotá, 16 March 2007.

[17] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Amb. Alicia Arango Olmos, Permanent Mission of Colombia to the UN in Geneva, 13 May 2011.

[18] Ibid.

[19] Presentation by the Colombian Armed Forces, “Desarrollo Compromiso con la Convención de Ottawa” (“Development Commitment with the Ottawa Convention”), Bogotá, 6 March 2006. Antipersonnel mines and IEDs manufactured by armed groups are constructed out of everything from glass bottles to plastic jerry cans. The explosive used is normally ANFO (made from fertilizer), but sometimes is a conventional explosive such as TNT. The mines are initiated by pressure-activated syringe fuzes (chemical initiation), battery-operated fuzes, and electric fuzes activated by both pressure and tripwires. These mines often have high levels of metal fragmentation in them.

[20] The Monitor has not seen reports of mine use by paramilitaries since 2006. See Landmine Monitor Report 2006, p. 300; Landmine Monitor Report 2005, p. 264; and Landmine Monitor Report 2004, p. 324.

[21] “La guerrilla tiene una deuda moral con la población civil colombiana: Angelino Garzón” (“The guerrilla has a moral debt to the civilian population of Colombia: Angelino Garzón”), Emisora del Ejército de Colombia (army radio), 29 August 2012, www.emisoraejercito.mil.co/?idcategoria=13046; and Luis Jaime Acosta and Helen Murphy, “Colombia's ELN rebels offer peace talks, refuse ceasefire first,” Reuters Canada, 27 August 2012, ca.reuters.com/article/topNews/idCABRE87Q0VZ20120827.

[22] Open letter from the ELN signed by ELN Commander in Chief Nicolás Rodríguez Bautista, 10 September 2012 See also www.genevacall.org/resources/nsas-statements/f-nsas-statements/2001-2010/2012_El_ELN_y_el-DIH_ Evento_ Seminario_Taller.pdf.

[23] See: www.scribd.com/doc/144741973/Demining-Agreement. See also: Anastasia Moloney, “Landmines maim and kill Colombia’s children, rural communities,” Reuters, 26 June 2013, www.trust.org/item/20130626060528-f3oey.

[24] Email from Matthew Hovell, Programme Manager, HALO Trust, 14 April 2010.

[25] See, for example, Chris Kraul, “Land mines take a toll on Colombia’s poor,” Los Angeles Times, 6 March 2010, articles.latimes.com/2010/mar/06/world/la-fg-colombia-mine6-2010mar06; CCCM, “Problemática de los erradicadores manuals de cultivos ilícitos víctimas de minas antipersonal” (“Problem of illicit manual crop eradicators landmine victims”), June 2011; and “Landmine injures 12 coca eradicators,” Colombia Reports, 7 October 2011, colombiareports.co/landmine-injures-12-coca-eradicators/.

[26] The call was based on the findings of a 2011 ICBL visit which concluded that the Colombian manual eradication program was putting civilians at risk from mines and noted that the government had not been able to effectively protect citizens from this risk. The ICBL therefore recommended that civilians not be recruited to take part in the Colombian manual eradication program and called on the Colombian government to end the involvement of civilians in this program. The ICBL also called on the Colombian government to redouble its efforts to recognize and certify coca eradicator survivors as mine victims to ensure access to a full range of victim assistance. ICBL, Conclusiones de la Campaña Internacional para la Prohibición de las Minas Misión de Cabildeo a Colombia: Del 9 al 15 de octubre de 2011” (“Conclusions of the International Campaign to Ban Landmines’ Lobbying Mission to Colombia: From 9 to 15 October 2011”), February 2012, www.scribd.com/doc/84171874/ICBL-Mission-Colombia-Oct2011-Espagnol.

[27] HRW telephone interviews with Restitution Unit official, 16 January 2013 and 8 March 2013; “Los grandes desafíos” (The greatest challenges”), Semana (magazine), undated, www.semana.com/Especiales/restitucion-tierras/, accessed 19 May 2013; and HRW, “Colombia: The Risk of Returning Home,” September 2013, www.hrw.org/node/118404/section/6 - _ftn96.

[28] Four antipersonnel mines were found in the department of Tolima, while the other 16 were found in Arauca. All were attributed to FARC by the army: “With four antipersonnel mines pretended to attack against the civilian population,” Emisora del Ejército de Colombia, 13 August 2012, www.ejercito.mil.co/index.php?idcategoria=334955; and “Explosive experts neutralized 16 death traps from the Farc,” Emisora del Ejército de Colombia, 29 August 2012, www.ejercito.mil.co/index.php?idcategoria=335743.

[29] “Army destroyed a mined field prepared by the FARC,” Emisora del Ejército de Colombia, 24 September 2012, www.ejercito.mil.co/index.php?idcategoria=336813.

[30] “Army locates hideouts from the FARC with arms and explosives,” Emisora del Ejército de Colombia, 2 September 2012, www.ejercito.mil.co/index.php?idcategoria=335886.

[31] The explosives planted by FARC were discovered in the departments of Valle del Cauca, Tolima, and Antioquia, while those belonging to the ELN were laid in Norte de Santander, Narino, and Antioquia. “Explosives from the FARC were destroyed in Valle del Cauca,” Emisora del Ejército de Colombia, 1 October 2012, www.ejercito.mil.co/index.php?idcategoria=337202; “Army increases operations at the Southern area of Tolima,” Emisora del Ejército de Colombia, 8 October 2012, www.ejercito.mil.co/index.php?idcategoria=337458; “Counter explosive Military Working Dogs from the Army located three mines,” Emisora del Ejército de Colombia, 16 October 2012, www.ejercito.mil.co/?idcategoria=337803; “Counter explosive experts neutralize three mines from the FARC and ELN,” Emisora del Ejército de Colombia, 18 October 2012, www.ejercito.mil.co/index.php?idcategoria=337928; and “Land mines installed by the ELN and the FARC were destroyed” Emisora del Ejército de Colombia, 30 October 2012, www.ejercito.mil.co/index.php?idcategoria=338469.

[32] “Four explosive artifacts were destroyed by the Army.” Emisora del Ejército de Colombia. 21 November 2012, www.ejercito.mil.co/?idcategoria=339639.

[33] “Army destroys two tatuco type improvised explosive artifacts and two antipersonnel mines.” Emisora del Ejército de Colombia, 12 November 2012, www.ejercito.mil.co/index.php?idcategoria=339095.

[34] “Bomb cylinders and four antipersonnel mines located.” Emisora del Ejército de Colombia. 27 November 2012, www.ejercito.mil.co/?idcategoria=339865.

[35] “Desactivan artefacto explosivo en zona rural de Buenaventura (“Explosive artifact deactivated in the rural zone of Buenaventura”), El Pais, 30 November 2012, www.elpais.com.co/elpais/judicial/noticias/desactivan-artefacto-explosivo-zona-rural-buenaventura.

[36] “Eight mines were destroyed by the Army in Caqueta,” Emisora del Ejército de Colombia, 18 December 2012, www.ejercito.mil.co/?idcategoria=340754.

[37] “Army destroyed explosive artifacts,” Emisora del Ejército de Colombia, 18 December 2012, www.ejercito.mil.co/?idcategoria=340752.

[38] In the first cache, 2,345 antipersonnel mines were discovered; 5,000 in the second. Both caches were found with five days of each other. See “Putumayo tendrá centro de rehabilitacion para victimas de minas antipersonal” (“Putumayo will have a rehabilitation center for victims of antipersonnel mines”), La F.M., 27 May 2013, www.lafm.com.co/noticias/putumayo-tendra-centro-de-138488; and “Ejército halló y destruye 5,000 minas antipersonal de las Farc” (“The Army found and destroys 5,000 antipersonnel mines from the FARC”), La F.M., 10 May 2013, www.lafm.com.co/noticias/ejercito-hallo-y-destruye-5000-137353.

[39] “Siete artefactos explosivos improvisados fueron neutralizados por el Ejército” (“Seven improvised explosive devices were neutralized by the Army”), Army News Agency, 20 June 2013, www.emisoraejercito.mil.co/content/siete-artefactos-explosivos-improvisados-fueron-neutralizados-por-el-ejército.

[40] “Fuerza de Tarea Vulcano continua asestando Fuertes golpes contra las estructuras del narcotrafico” (“Vulcan Task force continues delivering heavy blows against drug trafficking structures”), Officina de Prensa Fuerza de Tarea Vulcano (Vulcan Task Force Press Office), 1 June 2013, www.emisoraejercito.mil.co/node/952.

[41] “Acciones terroristas de las Farc con explosivos fueron frustradas por el Ejercito” (“Terrorist actions of the FARC with explosives were thwarted by the army”), Oficina de prensa Fuerza Tarea Apolo Apolo Task Force Press Office), 11 June 2013, www.emisoraejercito.mil.co/node/1097.

[42] “Acciones militares dejan la destruccion de 14 minas anti-personal” (“Military Actions leave the destruction of 14 anti-personnel mines”), Army News Agency, 23 June 2013, www.emisoraejercito.mil.co/content/acciones-militares-dejan-la-destrucción-de-14-minas-antipersonal.

[43] “Ejercito neutraliza acciones terroristas de las Farc en el pais” (“Army neutralizes terrorist actions of the FARC in the country”), Agencia de Noticias de Ejercito, 3 June 2013, www.emisoraejercito.mil.co/node/964.

[44] “Neutralizadas acciones terroristas en el Pais” (“Terrorist actions neutralized in the country”), 9 June 2013, www.emisoraejercito.mil.co/node/1086.

[45] Oficina de Prensa Fuerza Tarea Apolo (Apolo Task Force Press Office), “Las Farc no enfrentan a la Fuerza Publica: su terrorismo se limita a sembrar indiscriminadamente artefactors explosivos” (“The FARC does not confront the public forces: its terrorism limits itself to indiscriminately planting explosive devices”), Agencia de Noticias de Ejercito, 30 July 2013, www.cgfm.mil.co/CGFMPortal/faces/index.jsp?id=21525.

[46] “Ejercito neutraliza acciones terroristas de las Farc” (“Army neutralizes the terrorist actions of FARC”), Agencia de Noticias de Ejercito, 9 July 2013, www.emisoraejercito.mil.co/content/ejército-neutraliza-acciones-terroristas-de-las-farc.

[47] “Ejercito propina golpe al Eln en Amalfi, Antioquia” (“Army strikes a blow to the ELN in Amalfi, Antioqia”), Oficina de Prensa de la Decimocuarta Brigada (Press Office of the 14th Brigade), 10 July 2013, www.emisoraejercito.mil.co/content/ejército-propina-golpe-al-eln-en-amalfi-antioquia.

[48] “250 kilos de anfo y un campo minado fueron descubiertos por el Ejercito” (“250 kilos of ANFO and a minefield were discovered by the Army”), Oficina de prensa Fuerza de Tarea Apolo (Apolo Task Force Press Office), 2 August 2013, www.emisoraejercito.mil.co/content/250-kilos-de-anfo-y-un-campo-minado-fueron-descubiertos-por-el-ejército.

[49] “Fuerza de Tarea Vulcano frustra atentado terrorista en Sardinata” (“Vulcan Task Force thwarts a terrorist attack in Sardinata”), Oficina de Prense Fuerza de Tarea Vulcano (Vulcan Task Force Press Office), 15 August 2013, www.emisoraejercito.mil.co/content/fuerza-de-tarea-vulcano-frustra-atentado-terrorista-en-sardinata.