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Last Updated: 06 October 2011

Mine Action

Contamination and Impact

Cambodia is affected by mines and explosive remnants of war (ERW) left by 30 years of conflict that ended in the 1990s. The precise extent of contamination is not known. Cambodia’s Mine Ban Treaty Article 5 deadline extension request, submitted in 2009, estimated the total area containing antipersonnel mines and still requiring clearance at 648.8km2.[1] Results of part of a Baseline Survey (BLS) started in mid-2009 suggest the extent of contamination may be even greater.[2]


Cambodia’s antipersonnel mine problem is concentrated in, but not limited to, 21 northwestern districts along the border with Thailand, which accounted for more than 90% of casualties in the three years to 2009. Contamination includes the 1,046km-long K5 mine belt installed by the Vietnamese-backed government in the mid-1980s to block insurgent infiltration, which ranks among the densest contamination in the world with, reportedly, up to 2,400 mines per linear kilometer.[3]

Cambodia’s 2009 Article 5 deadline extension request estimated that mined areas covered almost 650km2. Results from the first 23 districts covered by the BLS in 2010 identified mined area polygons covering 672.9km2, including 326.7km2 of land densely contaminated with antipersonnel and/or antivehicle mines and 346.2km2 of land classified as “containing scattered or nuisance AP mines [antipersonnel mines].” A further 42km2 were identified as “residual threat,” containing ERW but not mines.[4]

High-casualty antivehicle mine incidents in 2010 also highlighted the threat of these devices, which killed nearly three times as many people as did antipersonnel mines in 2010.[5] That danger has increased as population pressures fuel demand for land and increasingly heavy farm vehicles are used along old roads, some of them abandoned in the years of conflict.[6]

Casualties by device[7]










Antipersonnel mines






Antivehicle mines


















Cluster munition remnants

The United States (US) dropped at least 26 million explosive submunitions on Cambodia during the Vietnam War, mostly in eastern and northeastern areas bordering the Lao People’s Democratic Republic and Vietnam. The bombing is estimated to have left between 1.9 million and 5.8 million cluster munition remnants, including unexploded BLU-24, BLU-26, BLU-36, BLU-42, BLU-43, BLU-49, and BLU-61 submunitions.[8]

Mines Advisory Group (MAG) reported in 2009 that in northeastern Stung Treng province unexploded submunitions constitute up to 80% of the ERW encountered by its clearance team.[9] In 2010, working with two EOD teams, MAG reported destroying 2,050 submunitions in the course of roving EOD operations, of which 1,453 were destroyed in just three months of operations in northern Stung Treng province and 597 in eastern Kompong Cham province. However, cuts in funding resulted in MAG standing down these two teams in May 2011.[10]

A clearer understanding of the extent of contamination by cluster munition remnants is expected from the second and third phases of the BLS, which will cover eastern and northeastern districts. Norwegian People’s Aid (NPA) is supporting the Cambodian Mine Action Center (CMAC) in conducting an ERW survey focusing particularly on determining the extent of cluster munition remnants contamination.[11] The Cambodia Mine/UXO Victim Information System (CMVIS) recorded 17 submunition casualties in 2010, including four fatalities.[12]

Cross-border shelling in April 2011 by Thailand of Cambodia’s northern province, Preah Vihear, resulted in additional submunition contamination. An assessment by CMAC and NPA immediately after the shelling identified 12 strike sites and contamination by unexploded M42, M46, and M85 submunitions over an area of approximately 1.5km2, impacting four villages and affecting between 5,000 and 10,000 people.[13] NPA said evidence in the area suggested about one in five of the submunitions had failed to detonate.[14]

Other explosive remnants of war

The US also dropped more than a million tons (one billion kilograms) of general purpose bombs during the Vietnam War, mostly in eastern Cambodia. In other parts of the country, operators encounter mainly land-fired ordnance, including artillery shells, rockets, and mortars. A 2006 study of ERW in Cambodia found that more than 80% of the ordnance being cleared was ground artillery and munitions, and less than 20% was air ordnance.[15] ERW now account for just over half the casualties caused by all types of explosive ordnance in Cambodia.[16]

Mine Action Program

Key institutions and operators


Situation on 1 January 2011

National Mine Action Authority


Mine action center


International demining operators


National demining operators

CMAC, Royal Cambodian Armed Forces (RCAF)

International RE operators

Handicap International-Belgium (HI-Belgium), MAG, Spirit of Soccer

National RE operators

National Police, Ministry of Education, World Vision Cambodia, Cambodian Red Cross, CMAC

The Cambodian Mine Action and Victim Assistance Authority (CMAA), set up in September 2000, regulates and coordinates mine action, responsibilities previously assigned to the CMAC.[17] The CMAA’s responsibilities include regulation and accreditation of all operators, preparing strategic plans, managing data, quality control, and coordinating mine/ERW risk education (RE), and victim assistance.[18] Prime Minister Hun Sen is the CMAA President, and a senior government minister, Secretary of State of the Council of Ministers, Prak Sokhonn, who is CMAA vice-president, leads the dialogue with donors as the chair of a Mine Action Technical Working Group.[19]

The CMAA’s management is overseen by its Secretary-General, Chum Bun Rong, who was appointed in December 2008.[20] A subdecree (No. 92), issued in August 2009, specifies that CMAA has five departments: regulation and monitoring, socio-economic planning and database management, mine victim assistance, public relations, and general administration.[21]

A National Mine Action Strategy 2010−2019 (NMAS), drawn up by the CMAA in consultation with UNDP and stakeholders, received government approval in November 2010. The strategy sets four main goals:[22]

·         reduce mine/ERW casualties and other negative impacts, by allocating demining assets to the most impacted communities and promoting RE;

·         contribute to economic growth and poverty reduction, by supporting local, subnational, and national development priorities, supporting access to care for survivors and securing the land rights of intended beneficiaries of clearance;

·         promote international and regional disarmament and stability, by supporting the Mine Ban Treaty, and adhering to the Convention on Conventional Weapons Protocol V on explosive remnants of war; and

·         ensure sustainable national capacities to adequately address the residual mine/ERW contamination; by reviewing the institutional framework to address the residual problem, plug gaps, and maintaining sustainable capacity.

The NMAS describes itself as a “living document” and provides for a mid-term evaluation in 2013 in order to align NMAS with the 2014–2019 National Strategic Development Plan. In the meantime, it requires the CMAA to prepare annual workplans in consultation with development partners to fulfill the NMAS objectives.[23]

The CMAA reviewed planning and prioritization procedures in 2010 and 2011 in an attempt to ensure greater coherence and coordination of mine clearance. Under guidelines laid down by a subdecree issued in November 2004, and operational guidelines issued by CMAA in February 2007, responsibility for setting and prioritizing tasks lies with eight provincial Mine Action Planning Units (MAPUs). They work with local authorities to identify community priorities, and with operators to prepare annual task lists which are reviewed and approved by Provincial Mine Action Councils. In provinces without MAPUs, mine action is coordinated with provincial authorities. In practice, however, MAPU’s have approved many clearance tasks that were decided by operators consulting bilaterally with donors.

New guidelines and criteria for planning and prioritization drafted by the CMAA and due to be launched in August 2011 seek to integrate clearance more closely with broader commune development plans and to ensure clearance assets are concentrated on hazardous area polygons identified by the BLS. The guidelines also include a provision for the CMAA to give guidance and direction to the relevant MAPU on the criteria that define clearance priorities.[24]

CMAA with support from UNDP also drew up “Partnership Principles” to guide relations and improve coordination with donor governments that emphasize the centrality of the NMAS and the CMAA in mine action. The principles represent “a common understanding” between the government and development partners designed “to make mine action a driver of growth and poverty reduction within the context of the (2009−2013 National Strategic Development Plan).” The principles state “no mine action programme, project, annual workplan or new initiative should be implemented without prior agreement from the CMAA.” The government, recognizing the impact of mine action on development, “will commit annually a heightened level of support from its own budget resources.” Seven donors that signed the principles, dated 4 April 2011, were Australia, Canada, Germany, Ireland, Norway, the United Kingdom, and the UN.[25]

The CMAA introduced a new Cambodian Mine Action Standard (Chapter 15, CMAS) on land release in 2010 laying down guidelines for non-technical survey (referred to as BLS) and technical survey. This Standard, approved by the government in January 2011, supersedes Cambodia’s 2006 policy on area reduction and reiterated the need to “target the available resources onto the areas with the greatest need through clearly defining the actual contamination status.” The draft includes a statement for the first time in Cambodia accepting that “no liability shall rest with an accredited operator for land that is released” provided they have complied fully with the new CMAS and the land released had been subject to CMAA quality assurance (QA).[26]

UNDP has supported the CMAA through a “Clearing for Results” program that expired at the end of March 2010. It was replaced from 1 January 2011 by a second project still funded and advised by UNDP but under national management. Project priorities included strengthening CMAA management and technical capacity, conducting the BLS, and promoting cost-effective approaches to land release through competitive bidding for clearance contracts.[27] As part of that program, CMAA awarded four contracts for projects in 2011 worth a total of $2.8 million:

·         CMAC won two contracts for clearance and technical survey in Banteay Meanchey and Battambang provinces. The initial plan was for two contracts worth US$1 million each covering 4km2 and 4.5km2 respectively. Not all funding had been mobilized by the time the selection process was complete so CMAC was required to clear a total of 4.7km2 in both provinces from 1 May to 31 September 2011. Having mobilized additional funding by August 2011, CMAA was considering extending the contracts until January 2012 to ensure completion of the work, subject to performance.

·         The RCAF’s National Center for Peace Keeping Forces, Mine and ERW Clearance (NPMEC), received a US$380,000 contract to clear 1.2km2 of Pailin between July 2011 and April 2012, its first involvement in CMAA-coordinated mine action.

·         HALO received a $400,000 contract to provide seven survey teams for the second phase of the BLS.[28]

Land Release

Humanitarian mine action operators struggled to maintain the pace of clearance in an increasingly challenging financial environment in 2010. Despite these conditions, CMAA data shows the three humanitarian demining agencies and the RCAF released a total of 103.5km2 in 2010, almost double the amount reportedly released in 2009.

The total included 68.52km2 attributed to CMAC alone.[29] However, CMAC results showed its total included substantial amounts of land canceled by non-technical survey or released by technical survey (23.3km2).[30] The RCAF reported it cleared almost double the amount of land it cleared the previous year, but its operations were not subject to QA and it provided no details of the tasks it has undertaken.[31]

Five-year summary of clearance[32]


Mined and battle area cleared (km2)*


52.7 (67.23)


44.73 (59.24)


37.86 (63.26)


36.34 (55.30)


35.40 (51.90)


 207.03 (296.93)

*Results for humanitarian mine clearance operators. Figures in brackets include results reported by RCAF.

Survey in 2010

The BLS program provides for survey by CMAC, HALO, and MAG of 21 districts of northwestern Cambodia under Phase 1 completed by the end of 2010, 40 districts of central, southeastern, and northern districts under Phase 2 due to be completed by the end of 2011, and 61 districts of eastern and northern Cambodia under Phase 3, due for completion by the end of 2012.[33]

Survey of the first 23 districts completed in 2010 identified 714.8km2 contaminated by mines and ERW, of which 47.1km2 was classified as A1 (densely contaminated by antipersonnel mines), 249.8km2 was A2 (dense mixture of antipersonnel and antivehicle mines), 29.75km2 was A3 (land containing antivehicle mines only) and 346.2km2 was A4 (land containing scattered or nuisance antipersonnel mines). The remaining 42km2 was classified as land containing ERW only, or with no verifiable mine threat.[34]

These figures could rise further. In a presentation to the Standing Committee meetings in Geneva in June 2011, the CMAA noted that “some restricted areas or villages” remained “outside the BLS data” but gave no further details.[35] A CMAA meeting in January 2010 agreed that as a result of tensions with Thailand areas along the border would be surveyed at a later date. HALO noted that it had previously identified an additional 34.8km2 of contamination in four districts of Oddar Meanchey, most of which was the K5 border mine belt.[36]

Operators conducted the BLS according to common standing operating procedures (SOPs) agreed in 2009 but operators produced widely varying results, an issue that was under review by the CMAA in mid-2011.[37] CMAC, which surveyed 13 of 21 districts in the first phase of the BLS, identified 288.5km2, while HALO, which surveyed six districts, identified 408.4km2 of contamination. MAG, which surveyed two districts, identified 17.6km2.[38]

In addition to the BLS, CMAC, with technical support from NPA, is deploying six survey teams for an ERW survey particularly aimed at identifying the extent of cluster munition remnants contamination in Cambodia, focusing initially on eastern provinces along the border with Vietnam.[39] 

Mine and battle area clearance in 2010

Under the NMAS, Cambodia aimed to release 35km2 a year through full manual clearance, and more if funding increased.[40] In 2010, manual clearance by humanitarian demining operators fell 11% from 33.67km2 in 2009 to 29.7km2 in 2010. RCAF reported that it cleared 27.9km2, but its results cannot be verified, leaving it uncertain whether Cambodia achieved its NMAS target.[41]

CMAC, the biggest operator in Cambodia, cleared 22.2km² of mined area in 2010, down from 24.3km² the previous year. CMAC reduced its permanent staff by 210 to around 1,800 in 2010 as funding constraints forced it to reduce the number of demining teams and mine detection dog teams.[42] However, CMAC took delivery of US$15.8 million worth of equipment from Japan in 2010, including 115 vehicles, 500 detectors, and eight demining machines, and expects mechanical assets will help to improve demining productivity. At the same time, CMAC increased the number of battle area clearance (BAC) teams and its clearance of battle area more than doubled from 9.4km in 2009 to 21.3km² in 2010.[43]

CMAC also concluded an agreement with NPA under which it receives support for the database and for CMAC’s survey management group overseeing its implementation of the BLS. Under a new partnership agreement signed in February 2011, NPA is also providing support in developing standards and SOPs for survey, particularly in relation to ERW and cluster munition remnants.[44]

HALO, with 1,200 staff, experienced a 7% drop in the area cleared in 2010, partly due to a drop in its number of active deminers, but it also recorded a slight increase in the number of mines it destroyed. These, however, remain far behind the number destroyed in 2008 (37,757) because of restrictions imposed by the military on its access to the K5 mine belt, mainly as a result of border tensions with Thailand. HALO expressed concern that this restriction had remained in place in 2010 when, it said, nearly half all accidents in 2009 and 2010 had occurred in the K5. Noting the upswing in antivehicle mine casualties in 2010, HALO intended in 2011 to tackle a larger number of antivehicle mine-contaminated areas. In the first three months of 2011 it reported clearing 3km2 of such areas.[45]

MAG had to cope with a nearly 50% reduction in capacity as a result of funding shortfalls. It ended 2010 with 290 operational and support staff, and saw a proportionate 43% drop in the amount of land it cleared in 2010. In addition to area clearance, MAG explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) teams also conducted 1,691 roving tasks, destroying another 10,414 items of unexploded ordnance (UXO).[46]

The CMAA accredited four RCAF platoons in 2011, bringing to five the number of its platoons now accredited for mine action. The CMAA said three of these platoons would deploy for clearance operations in Pailin under the contract it awarded as part of Clearance for Results Phase 2.[47]

 Mine and battle area clearance in 2010[48]

Demining operators

Clearance (km2)

No. of antipersonnel mines destroyed

No. of antivehicle mines destroyed

No. of UXO destroyed
















Humanitarian demining















* CMAC reported mined area clearance of 22.2km2, BAC of 21.3km2, and cancelation/release by non-technical and technical survey of 23.3km2, totaling 66.8km2.

Compliance with Article 5 of the Mine Ban Treaty

Under Article 5 of the Mine Ban Treaty (and in accordance with the 10-year extension granted in 2009), Cambodia is required to destroy all antipersonnel mines in mined areas under its jurisdiction or control as soon as possible, but not later than 1 January 2020.

The extent of clearance that will be needed to fulfill Cambodia’s Article 5 obligations will not be known before completion of the BLS scheduled by the end of 2012. Results from survey of the first 23 of the 122 districts due to be covered by the BLS identified 714.8km2 of mine/ERW contamination. The amount of land in these districts identified as contaminated with either antipersonnel mines or a mixture of antipersonnel and antivehicle mines amounted to 643.1km2. This did not include some areas of reported contamination on the border with Thailand that were not surveyed for security reasons. With the results of the BLS in 99 districts still to come, the Cambodia’s extension request estimate of antipersonnel mine contamination (648.8km2) is therefore expected to rise.[49]

In the meantime, humanitarian demining operators in Cambodia were forced to reduce capacity because of funding shortfalls, and clearance rates have suffered as a result. In 2010, the first year of implementing its extension request, Cambodia continued to report increased land release but this included increasing amounts of BAC. Mined area clearance by humanitarian deminers (29.69km2) was significantly below the Article 5 deadline extension request target for the year of 39.4km2. Cambodia could be said to have achieved the target only if the unverified clearance results reported by RCAF (27.86km2) are included.[50]

At the Tenth Meeting of States Parties, Cambodia warned that “without an increase in the current level of funding Cambodia is unlikely to mobilize resources required for 2010 and even less likely to obtain the 38% increase that has been foreseen to complete Article 5 obligations.”[51]

Clearance of cluster munition contaminated areas in 2010

Demining operators did not report any area clearance tasks targeting cluster munition remnants in 2010. MAG, working with two EOD teams, reported destroying 2,050 submunitions in the course of roving EOD operations in the northeast in 2010.[52] CMAC is also paying more attention to BAC in eastern provinces and reported it responded to 12,410 calls for EOD interventions in 2010 and destroyed 143,924 ERW, but did not disaggregate the number of cluster munition remnants.

After cross-border shelling by Thailand in April 2011, CMAC and NPA reported clearing 298,365m2 in the vicinity of two villages in May, destroying a total of six unexploded M46 and M42 submunitions.[53] By the end of June 2011, NPA reported a total of 920,101m² had been cleared and 21 unexploded submunitions destroyed.[54]

Quality management

The CMAA is responsible for quality management, operating six QA teams: two teams are based in Battambang, two in Bantheay Meanchey, one in Siem Reap, and one in Kampong Cham. The CMAA added two more QA teams to monitor the BLS and was considering adding two more teams to focus on quality control of land release.[55]

Safety of demining personnel

HALO reported two demining accidents in 2010, the more serious of which required the amputation of a deminer’s finger. The deminer subsequently returned to work.[56]

Other Risk Reduction Measures

Cambodia’s NMAS identifies RE as “an important component” in achieving its goal of reducing casualties and the social impact of mines.[57] RE is conducted by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports, CMAC and clearance operators, and the National Police, as well as by the Cambodian Red Cross and NGOs, including HI-Belgium and Spirit of Soccer. At the provincial level, the Provincial Mine Action Committee prioritizes and coordinates messages.[58]

CMAC pursued RE in 2010 working with 121 CMAC staff and 992 members of local volunteer networks engaged through its Community-based Mine Risk Reduction (CBMRR) and Community-based UXO Risk Reduction (CBURR) programs. It also worked with 140 scrap metal dealers contacted on a program for UXO Risk Reduction for Scrap Metal Dealers. Six mine RE teams worked on CBMRR in seven most affected provinces of north western and western Cambodia while CBURR teams operated in 13 provinces of central and eastern Cambodia. The program for scrap metal dealers focused on Kandal and Kompong Speu provinces.[59]

MAG deployed six community liaison teams that delivered targeted RE to high-risk groups in addition to working closely with communities and development partners, who helped to identify high-risk behaviors and community needs.[60] HALO operated one RE team that delivered 305 presentations in 2010 in support of the BLS.[61]


[1] Article 5 deadline Extension Request (Revision), 24 August 2009, p. 41.

[2] Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report for calendar year 2010, Form C.

[3] HALO, “Mine clearance in Cambodia–2009,” January 2009, p. 8.

[4] Baseline Survey data provided by Prum Sophamonkol, Deputy Secretary General, CMAA, Phnom Penh, 25 April 2011.

[5] Three incidents accounted for many of the antivehicle mine casualties. Five people were killed and nine injured by an antivehicle mine explosion in Pailin province in May 2010. Fourteen people from five families were killed by an antivehicle mine explosion in Battambang province in November 2010 when returning from farm work on a tractor/trailer. A month later, another antivehicle mine blast in Battambang killed two people and injured six.

[6] HALO, “Prospectus for Cambodia, 2011 and beyond,” Brochure, undated but 2010.

[7] Compiled by the Monitor from data provided by email by Chhiv Lim, Manager, CMVIS, 25 March 2011.

[8] South East Asia Air Sortie Database, cited in Dave McCracken, “National Explosive Remnants of War Study, Cambodia,” NPA in collaboration with CMAA, Phnom Penh, March 2006, p. 15; Human Rights Watch, “Cluster Munitions in the Asia-Pacific Region,” April 2008, www.hrw.org; and HI, Fatal Footprint: The Global Human Impact of Cluster Munitions (HI: Brussels, November 2006), p. 11.

[9] Interview with Jamie Franklin, Country Programme Manager, and Nick Guest, Technical Operations Manager, MAG, Phnom Penh, 28 April 2010.

[10] Emails from Lauren Cobham, Programme Officer, MAG, 12 April and 1 August 2011.

[11] NPA, “NPA Mine Action Cambodia - Quarterly Report - April May, June,” received by email from Phen Vandy, Project Manager, ERW/Cluster Munitions Survey, NPA, 15 August 2011.

[12] Casualty data provided by email by Chhiv Lim, CMVIS, 25 March 2011.

[13] Aina Ostreng, “Norwegian People’s Aid clears cluster bombs after clash in Cambodia,” NPA, 19 May 2011, www.folkehjelp.no.

[14] Thomas Miller, “Banks tied to cluster bombs named,” Phnom Penh Post, 26 May 2011, accessed at www.phnompenhpost.com.

[15] Interview with Dave McCracken, Consultant, NPA, Phnom Penh, 21 March 2006.

[16] 2010 casualty data received by email from Chhiv Lim, CMVIS, 25 March 2011.

[17] CMAC is the leading national demining operator, but does not exercise the wider responsibilities associated with the term “center.” Set up in 1992, CMAC was assigned the role of coordinator in the mid-1990s. It surrendered this function in a restructuring of mine action in 2000 that separated the roles of regulator and implementing agency and led to the creation of the CMAA.

[18] Geneva International Centre for Humanitarian Demining (GICHD), “A Study of the Development of National Mine Action Legislation,” November 2004, pp. 64–66.

[19] Email from Pascal Rapillard, Policy and External Relations, GICHD, 4 September 2009.

[20] Sam Rith, “Demining head loses two posts in reshuffle,” Phnom Penh Post, 30 December 2008, khmernz.blogspot.com.

[21] Elayne Gallagher, “Cambodian Mine Action Authority, Capacity Assessment–2009, Draft Final Report,” 16 December 2009, p. 10.

[22] CMAA, “National Mine Action Strategy 2010–2019 (Draft),” undated but 2010, p. 4.

[23] CMAA, “National Mine Action Strategy 2010–2019,” undated but 2010, p. 8.

[24] Interview with Melissa Sabatier, Mine Action Project Adviser, UNDP, Phnom Penh, 25 April 2011, and telephone interview, 3 August 2011.

[25] Government of Cambodia, “Partnership Principles for the Implementation of the National Mine Action Strategy 2010−2019 as a Single Related Framework for Mine Action Related Assistance,” Phnom Penh, 4 April 2011.

[26] CMAA, “Cambodian Mine Action Standards, Chapter 15, Land Release (Draft),”undated but 2010, pp. 1–2; and emails from Lou Luff, Technical Advisor, UNDP, 16 August 2010; and from Melissa Sabatier, UNDP, 3 August 2011.

[27] Interview with Melissa Sabatier, UNDP, Phnom Penh, 25 April 2011.

[28] Interview with Prum Sophamonkol, CMAA, 30 April 2011; and email from Melissa Sabatier, UNDP, 3 August 2011.

[29] CMAA, “Demining Progress Report 1992 − December 2010,” received by email from Eang Kamrang, Database Unit Manager, CMAA, 26 April 2011.

[30] CMAC, “Operational Summary Progress Report, 1992 − December 2010,” received by email 8 February 2011.

[31] Interview with Col. Ker Savoeun, Director of Peacekeeping, NPMEC, Phnom Penh, 30 April 2010.

[32] Compiled by the Monitor from CMAA, “Demining Progress Report 1992 − December 2010,” received by email from Eang Kamrang, CMAA, 26 April 2011 and CMAC, “Operational Summary Progress Report, 1992 − December 2010,” received by email 8 February 2011. The 2010 mined and battle area figure represents the total amount of land reported released by the CMAA less CMAC’s report of land released by survey.

[33]  Article 5 deadline Extension Request (Revision), 24 August 2009, p. 52.

[34] Data provided by Prum Sophamonkol, CMAA, Phnom Penh, 25 April 2011.

[35] CMAA, “Implementing Plans in Article 5 Extension Requests,” Presentation to the Standing Committee on Mine Clearance, Mine Risk Education and Mine Technologies, Geneva, 23 June 2011.

[36] Emails from Cameron Imber, Programme Manager, HALO, 8 August 2011; and from Matthew Hovell, Cambodia Desk Officer, HALO, 18 August 2011.

[37] Interview with Prum Sophamonkol, CMAA, Geneva, 23 June 2011.

[38] Data provided by Prum Sophamonkol, CMAA, Phnom Penh, 25 April 2011.

[39] NPA, “NPA Mine Action Cambodia - Quarterly Report - April May, June,” received by email from Phen Vandy, NPA, 15 August 2011.

[40] UNDP, “Project Document – Clearing for Results” (Phase 2), undated but 2010, p. 11. In its presentation to the Standing Committee on Mine Clearance in Geneva in June 2011 the CMAA identified annual clearance targets of 38.7km2 in 2010, 39.4 km2 in 2011, and 40.2km2 in 2012.

[41] CMAA, “Demining Progress Report 1992 − December 2010,” received by email from Eang Kamrang, CMAA, 26 April 2011.

[42] CMAC, “Interim Report, Annual Report 2010,” undated but 2011, pp.14, 23, and 27; and “Annual Report 2009,” undated but 2010, p. 10.

[43] Interview with Heng Rattana, Director-General, CMAC, Phnom Penh, 26 April 2011; CMAC, “Operational Summary Progress Report, 1992 − December 2010,” received by email, 8 February 2011.

[44] Interview with Jan-Eric Stoa, Program Manager, NPA, Siem Reap, 27 April 2011.

[45] Response to Monitor questionnaire by email from Cameron Imber, HALO, 30 March 2011.

[46] Response to Monitor questionnaire by email from Lauren Cobham, MAG, Phnom Penh, 6 April 2011.

[47] CMAA, “Implementing Plans in Article 5 Extension Requests,” presentation to the Standing Committee on Mine Clearance, Mine Risk Education and Mine Technologies, Geneva, 23 June 2011.

[48] CMAA, “Demining Progress Report 1992 − December 2010,” received by email from Eang Kamrang, CMAA, 26 April 2011; CMAC, “Operational Summary Progress Report,” undated but 2011.

[49] Interview with Heng Rattana, CMAC, Phnom Penh, 26 April 2011.

[50] CMAA, “Demining Progress Report 1992 − December 2010,” received by email from Eang Kamrang, CMAA, 26 April 2011.

[51] Statement of Cambodia, Tenth Meeting of States Parties, Geneva, 30 November 2010.

[52] Response to Monitor questionnaire by email from Lauren Cobham, MAG, 12 April 2011.

[53] Aina Ostreng, “Norwegian People’s Aid clears cluster bombs after clash in Cambodia,” NPA, 19 May 2011, www.folkehjelp.no.

[54] NPA, “NPA Mine Action Cambodia - Quarterly Report - April May, June,” received by email from Phen Vandy, NPA, 15 August 2011.

[55] Email from Prum Sophamonkol, CMAA, 18 August 2011.

[56] Response to Monitor questionnaire by email from Cameron Imber, HALO, 30 March 2011.

[57] CMAA, “National Mine Action Strategy 2010–2019 (Draft),” undated but 2010, p. 6.

[58] CMAA, “Yearly Activity Report 01 January 2009 to 31 December 2009, National Mine/UXO Risk Education and Risk Reduction,” Phnom Penh, undated but 2010, pp. 22, 24–26, 43–44.

[59] CMAC, “Interim Annual Report 2010,” undated but 2011, pp. 25−27.

[60] Response to Monitor questionnaire by email from Lauren Cobham, MAG, 12 April 2011.

[61] Response to Monitor questionnaire by email from Cameron Imber, HALO, 30 March 2011.